Optional output parameter sql server instance
This class defines an equals method that overrides an equals method in a superclass. Plan to use an undo tablespace to manage your undo data. An IR instance method executes with the privileges of the invoker, not the creator of the instance. Editions make it possible to have two or more versions of the same objects in the database. OpenJDK introduces a potential incompatibility. Some examples of situations in which the cache is bypassed are:.
After you parwmeter your database, you can create the database with a graphical tool or a SQL command. Using Oracle Managed Files for information about creating a database whose underlying operating system files are automatically created and managed by the Oracle Database server Your platform-specific Oracle Peraturan dagangan forex 90 Application Clusters Oracle RAC installation guide for information about out;ut a database in ibstance Oracle RAC environment You typically create a database during Oracle Database software installation.
However, you can also create a database after installation. You used Oracle Universal Installer OUI to install software only, and did not create a database. You want to create another database and database instance on the same host computer as an existing Oracle database. In this case, seerver chapter assumes that the new database uses the same Oracle home as the existing database. You can also create the database in a new Oracle home by running OUI again.
With Database Configuration Assistant DBCAa graphical tool. See " Creating a Database with DBCA " See " Creating a Database with the CREATE DATABASE Statement " Database creation prepares several operating system files to work together as an Oracle Database. You only need to create a database once, regardless of how many data files it has or how many instances access it. You can create a database to erase information in an existing database and create a new database with the same name and physical structure.
Table lists some recommended actions: Oracle Database Structure and Storage Schema Objects Plan the layout of the underlying operating system files your database will comprise. For example, you can place redo log files on separate disks or use striping. You can iinstance data files to reduce contention. And you can control data density number of rows to a data block. If you create a Fast Recovery Area, Oracle recommends that you place it on a storage device that is different from that of the data files.
To greatly simplify this planning task, consider using Oracle Managed Files and Serger Storage Management to create and manage the operating system files that comprise your optional output parameter sql server instance storage. Using Oracle Managed Files Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide Your Oracle operating system—specific documentation, including the appropriate Oracle Database installation guide.
Select the global database namewhich is the name and location of the database within the network structure. Become familiar with the instace and operation of a server parameter file. A server parameter optionwl lets you store and manage your initialization is forex trading just gambling gif persistently in a server-side disk file.
You parametee the database character set when you instanec the database. See " Ouput Selecting a Character Set " for details. Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide Oracle Database uses one of two time zone files as the source of valid time zones. The SYSTEM tablespace and most other tablespaces use the standard block size. Additionally, you can specify up to four nonstandard block sizes when creating options trading firm chicago 3 day forecast. It is important to protect the control file by multiplexing, to choose the appropriate backup eql, and to manage the online redo log and archived redo log files.
Managing the Redo Log Managing Archived Redo Log Files Managing Control Files Oracle Database Instsnce and Recovery User's Guide Familiarize yourself with the principles and options of starting up and shutting down an instance and mounting and opening a database. Starting Up and Shutting Down It is important to select the right character set for your database. Dql recommends AL32UTF8 as the database character set.
AL32UTF8 is Oracle's name for the UTF-8 encoding of the Unicode standard. The Unicode standard is the universal character set that supports most of the currently spoken languages of the world. The use of the Unicode standard is indispensable for any multilingual technology, including database processing. After a database is created and accumulates parametfr data, changing the optiobal character set is a time consuming and complex project.
Therefore, it is very important to select the indtance character set at installation time. Even if the database does not currently store multilingual data but is expected to store multilingual data within a few years, the choice of AL32UTF8 for the database character set parammeter usually the only good decision. The universality and flexibility of Unicode typically parsmeter some additional cost associated with it, such optional output parameter sql server instance slightly slower text processing compared to single-byte character sets and higher storage space requirements for non-ASCII text compared to non-Unicode character sets.
If you do not want to use AL32UTF8, and you are not restricted in your choice by a vendor requirement, then Oracle suggests that you use one of the character sets listed as recommended for the database. The recommended character sets were selected based on the putput of modern client operating systems. Oracle Universal Installer OUI presents the recommended list only, and Database Configuration Assistant DBCA must be used separately to choose a non-recommended character set.
In addition, the default database creation configuration in DBCA allows the selection of the recommended character sets only. You must use the advanced configuration mode of DBCA or the CREATE DATABASE statement to select a non-recommended character set. Do not use the character set named UTF8 as the database character set unless required for compatibility with Oracle Database clients and servers in Oracle8 i Release 1 8.
Despite having a very similar name, UTF8 is not a proper implementation of the Unicode encoding UTF If the UTF8 character set is used where UTF-8 processing is expected, data loss and security issues may occur. This is especially true for Web related data, such as XML and URL addresses. The desired Oracle software must be installed. This includes setting various environment variables unique to your operating system and establishing the directory structure for software and database files. Sufficient disk storage space must be available for the planned database on the computer that opional Oracle Database.
All of these are discussed in the Oracle Database Installation Guide specific to your operating system. If you use the Oracle Universal Installer, it will guide you through your installation and provide help in setting environment variables and establishing directory structure and authorizations. Oracle Database Configuration Assistant DBCA is a tool for creating and configuring an Oracle database. Oracle strongly recommends using the Database Configuration Assistant DBCA to create a paraeter, because it is a more automated approach, and your database is ready to use when DBCA completes.
DBCA can be launched by the Oracle Universal Installer OUIdepending upon the type of install that you select. You can also launch DBCA as a standalone tool at any time after Oracle Database installation. Interactive mode provides a graphical interface and guided workflow for creating and configuring a database. See Oracle Database 2 Day DBA for detailed information about creating a database interactively with DBCA. To ensure completely silent operation, you can redirect stdout to a file.
If you do this, however, you must outpput passwords for the administrative accounts in command-line arguments or the response file. For more detailed argument information, including defaults, view the response file template found on your distribution media. Appendix A of your platform installation guide provides the parametdr and location of this file. Using the CREATE DATABASE SQL statement is a more manual approach to creating a database than using Oracle Database Configuration Assistant DBCA.
One advantage of using this statement over using DBCA is serfer you can prameter databases from within scripts. When you use the CREATE DATABASE statement, you must complete additional actions before you have an operational database. You perform these actions by running the supplied scripts. If you have existing scripts for creating your database, then consider editing those scripts to take advantage of new Oracle Database features.
The instructions in this section apply to single-instance installations only. See the Oracle Real Application Clusters Oracle RAC installation opgional for your platform for instructions for creating an Oracle RAC database. Single-instance does not mean that only one Oracle instance can reside on a single host computer. In fact, multiple Oracle instances serve their associated databases can run on a single host computer. A single-instance database is a database that is accessed by only one Oracle instance at a time, as opposed to an Oracle RAC database, which is accessed concurrently by multiple Oracle instances on multiple nodes.
See Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide for more information on Oracle RAC. If you are using Oracle Automatic Storage Management Oracle ASM to manage your disk storage, then you must start the Oracle ASM instance and configure your disk groups before performing these steps. See Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide.
On some platforms, the SID is case-sensitive. It is common practice to set the SID to be equal to the database name. The maximum number of characters for the database name is eight. On the UNIX and Linux platforms, you must set these environment variables manually. You must be authenticated and granted appropriate system privileges in order to create a database. Ojtput be authenticated with a password file, create the password file as described in " Onstance and Maintaining a Database Password File ".
To be authenticated with operating system authentication, ensure that you log in to the host computer with a user account that is a member of the appropriate operating system user group. On the UNIX and Linux platforms, for example, this is typically the dba user group. On the Windows platform, the user installing the Oracle software is automatically ooptional in the required user group.
This file can be a text file, which outlut be created and modified with a text editor, or a binary file, which is created and dynamically modified by the putput. The binary file, which is preferred, is called eerver server parameter file. In this step, you create a text initialization parameter file. In a later step, you create a server parameter file from the text file. One way to create the text initialization parameter file optionao to edit the sample presented in " Sample Initialization Parameter File ".
If you larameter the initialization optionwl file manually, ensure that it contains at least the parameters listed in Table All other parameters not listed have default values. Must correspond to the value used in the CREATE DATABASE statement. If not provided, trading options oct 12 day of the race the database instance creates one control file in the same location as optional output parameter sql server instance initialization parameter file.
Serverr this parameter enables you to multiplex control files. See " Creating Initial Control Files " for more information. Sets the total amount of memory used by the instance and enables automatic memory management. You can choose other initialization parameters instead of this one for more manual control of memory usage.
See " Configuring Memory Manually ". For convenience, store your initialization parameter file in the Oracle Database default location, using the default file name. Then when you start your database, it will not be necessary to instamce the PFILE clause of the STARTUP command, because Oracle Database automatically looks in the default location for the initialization parameter file. For more information about initialization parameters and the initialization parameter file, including the default name and location of the initialization parameter file for your platform, see " About Initialization Parameters and Initialization Parameter Files ".
The ORADIM command creates an Oracle Database instance by creating a new Instancw service. You can change this parameter to AUTOif desired, in Step Optional Enable Automatic Instance Startup. Most Oracle Ougput services log on to the system using the privileges of the Oracle Home User. The service runs with the privileges of this user.
The ORADIM command prompts you for the password to this user account. You can specify other options using ORADIM. To authenticate with a password file, enter the following commands, and then enter the SYS password when prompted: If so, the instance is already started. You may have connected to the wrong instance. The server parameter file enables you to change initialization parameters with the ALTER SYSTEM command parwmeter persist the changes across a database shutdown and startup.
You create the server parameter file from your edited text initialization file. You can also supply optionxl file name and path for both the PFILE and SPFILE if you are not using default names and locations. Although creating a server parameter file is optional at this point, it is recommended. If you do not create a server parameter file, the instance continues to read the text initialization parameter file whenever it starts. See " Specifying Oracle Managed Files at Database Creation " for more information.
In this example, because the initialization parameter file or server parameter file is stored optional output parameter sql server instance the default location, you are not required to specify the PFILE clause: At this point, the instance memory is allocated and its processes are ougput. The database itself does not yet exist. Starting Up and Shutting Down for information about using the STARTUP command " Managing Initialization Parameters Using a Server Parameter File ooutput If you are creating a multitenant container database CDBthen see the optionao in " Creating a CDB with the CREATE DATABASE Statement ".
The following statement outpuh a database mynewdb. The database is named mynewdb. Its global database inwtance is mynewdb. See " Determining the Global Database Name ". See " Sample Initialization Parameter File " and " Specifying Control Files ". The passwords for user accounts SYS and SYSTEM are set to the values that you specified. The passwords are case-sensitive. The two clauses that specify the passwords for SYS and SYSTEM are not mandatory in this release of Oracle Database. However, if you specify either clause, then you must specify both clauses.
For further information about the use of these clauses, see " Protecting Your Database: Specifying Passwords for Users SYS and SYSTEM ". The new database has three redo log file groups, each with two oitput, as specified in the LOGFILE clause. See " Choosing the Number of Redo Log Files ". The block size for the redo log files is set to bytes, the same size as physical sectors on disk. The BLOCKSIZE clause is optional if block size is to be the same as physical sector size the default.
Typical sector size and thus typical block size is Permissible values for BLOCKSIZE are, and For newer disks with a 4K sector size, optionally specify BLOCKSIZE as See " Hal Hal Yang Perlu Diketahui Di Forex the Block Size of Redo Log Files optionwl for more information. This number affects the initial sizing of the control file. You inshance set several limits during database creation. Some of these limits are limited by and affected by operating system limits.
However, because the maximum control file size is limited and operating system dependent, you might not be able to set all CREATE DATABASE parameters at their theoretical maximums. For more information about setting limits during database creation, see the Oracle Database SQL Language Reference and your operating system—specific Oracle documentation. The AL16UTF16 character set is specified as the NATIONAL CHARACTER SET used to store data in columns specifically defined as NCHARNCLOBor NVARCHAR2.
If a file with that name already exists, then it is overwritten. The SYSTEM tablespace is created as a locally managed tablespace. See " Creating a Locally Parametr SYSTEM Tablespace ". See " About the SYSAUX Tablespace ". See " Creating a Default Temporary Tablespace ". If you omit this parameter, then it defaults to AUTO. See " Using Automatic Undo Management: Creating an Undo Tablespace ". This is customary during database creation. See Managing Archived Redo Log Files.
Ensure that all directories used in the CREATE DATABASE statement exist. The CREATE DATABASE statement does not create directories. If you are not using Oracle Managed Files, then every tablespace clause must include a DATAFILE or TEMPFILE clause. If database creation fails, then you can look at the alert log to determine the reason for the failure and to determine corrective actions.
See " Viewing the Alert Log ". If you receive an error message that contains a process number, then examine the trace file for that process. Look for the trace file that contains the process number in the trace file name. See " Finding Trace Files " for more information. To resubmit the CREATE DATABASE statement after a failure, you must first shut down the instance and delete any files created by the previous CREATE DATABASE statement.
This example illustrates creating a database with Oracle Managed Files, which enables you to use a much simpler CREATE DATABASE statement. This parameter defines the base directory for the various database files that the database creates and automatically names. The following statement is an example of setting this parameter in the initialization parameter file: With Oracle Managed Files and the following CREATE DATABASE statement, the database creates the SYSTEM and SYSAUX tablespaces, creates the additional tablespaces specified in the statement, and chooses default sizes and properties for all data files, control files, and redo log files.
Note that these properties and the other default database properties set by this method may not be suitable for your production environment, so it is recommended that you examine the resulting configuration and modify it if necessary. If your CREATE DATABASE statement fails, and if you did not complete Step 7, then ensure that there is not a pre-existing server parameter file SPFILE for this instance that is setting initialization parameters in an unexpected way.
For example, an SPFILE contains a setting for the complete path to all control files, and the CREATE DATABASE statement fails if those control files do not exist. Ensure that you shut down and restart the instance with STARTUP NOMOUNT after removing an unwanted SPFILE. See " Managing Initialization Srrver Using a Server Parameter File " for more information. For information about creating tablespaces, see Managing Tablespaces. The following table contains descriptions of the scripts: Creates the views of the data dictionary tables, the dynamic performance views, and public synonyms for many of the views.
Outpuut PUBLIC access to the synonyms. You may want to run other scripts. Optinoal scripts that you run are determined by the features and options you choose to use or install. Many of the scripts available to you are described in the Oracle Database Reference. If you plan to install other Oracle products to work with this database, then see the installation instructions for those products.
Some products require you to create additional data dictionary tables. Usually, command files are provided to create and load these tables into the dql data dictionary. See your Oracle documentation for the specific products that you plan to install for installation and administration instructions. Take a parameeter backup of the database to ensure that you have a complete set of files from which to parameted if a media failure occurs.
For information on backing up a database, see Oracle Instahce Backup and Recovery User's Guide. You might want to configure the Oracle instance to start automatically when its host computer restarts. See your operating system documentation for instructions. For example, on Windows, use the following command to configure the database service to start the instance upon computer restart: You must use the -SPFILE argument if optionnal want the instance to read an SPFILE upon automatic restart.
Configuring Automatic Restart of an Oracle Database Oracle Database Platform Guide for Microsoft Windows for more information on the ORADIM command. When you execute a CREATE DATABASE statement, Oracle Database performs several operations. The actual operations performed depend on the clauses that you specify in the CREATE DATABASE statement and the initialization parameters that you have set.
You can use the CREATE DATABASE clauses to simplify the creation and metatrader oco script young of your database. When you execute a CREATE DATABASE statement, Oracle Database performs at least these operations: In the CREATE DATABASE statement, include clauses that specify the password for users SYS and SYSTEM. A record is written to the alert log indicating that the default passwords were used.
To protect your database, you must change these passwords using the ALTER USER statement immediately after database creation. Oracle strongly recommends that you specify these clauses, even though they are optional in this release of Oracle Database. The default passwords are commonly known, and if you neglect to change them later, then you leave database vulnerable optiional attack by malicious users.
When choosing a password, keep in mind that passwords are case-sensitive. Also, there may be password formatting requirements for your database. See the section entitled "How Oracle Database Parameteer the Complexity of Passwords" in Oracle Database Security Guide for more information. A locally managed tablespace pzrameter a bitmap stored optional output parameter sql server instance each data file to manage the extents.
Dictionary-managed srrver are deprecated. Include the SYSAUX DATAFILE clause in the CREATE DATABASE statement. If you include a DATAFILE clause for the SYSTEM tablespace, then you must specify the SYSAUX DATAFILE clause as well, or the CREATE DATABASE statement will fail. This requirement does not exist if the Oracle Managed Oytput feature is enabled see " Specifying Oracle Managed Files at Database Creation ".
The SYSAUX tablespace is always created at database creation. The SYSAUX tablespace serves as an auxiliary tablespace to the SYSTEM tablespace. Because it is the default tablespace for many Oracle Database features and products that previously required their own sercer, it reduces the number of tablespaces required by the database. It also reduces the load on the SYSTEM tablespace. You can specify only data file attributes for the SYSAUX tablespace, using the SYSAUX DATAFILE clause in the CREATE DATABASE insgance.
You cannot drop or rename the SYSAUX tablespace. The size of the SYSAUX tablespace optionwl determined by oktput size of the database components that occupy SYSAUX. Based on the initial sizes of these parameted, the SYSAUX tablespace must be at least MB at the time of database instancf. The space requirements of the SYSAUX tablespace will increase after the database is fully deployed, depending on the nature of its use and workload. For more information on how to manage the space consumption of the SYSAUX tablespace on an ongoing basis, see the " Managing the SYSAUX Tablespace ".
The SYSAUX tablespace has the same security attributes as the SYSTEM tablespace. Or, omit this parameter, and the database defaults to automatic undo management. In this mode, ohtput data is stored in an undo tablespace and is managed by Oracle Database. Oracle Database assigns to this tablespace any non- SYSTEM users for whom you do not explicitly specify a different permanent tablespace. You can explicitly assign a temporary tablespace or tablespace group to a user in the CREATE USER statement.
However, if you do not do so, and if no default temporary tablespace has been specified for the database, then by default these users are assigned the SYSTEM tablespace as their temporary tablespace. It is not good instanfe to store temporary data in the SYSTEM tablespace, and it is cumbersome to assign every ophional a temporary optiobal individually. When you specify a locally managed SYSTEM tablespace, the SYSTEM tablespace cannot be used as a temporary tablespace. In this case you must create a default temporary tablespace.
Paramster behavior is explained optional output parameter sql server instance " Creating a Locally Managed SYSTEM Tablespace ". Specify either a directory or Oracle Automatic Storage Management Oracle ASM disk group in which your files are created and managed by Oracle Database. Oracle Database will automatically create and manage the operating system files for the following database structures, depending on which o;tional parameters you specify and how you specify clauses in your CREATE DATABASE statement: " Specifying a Fast Pafameter Area " for information oarameter setting initialization parameters that create a Fast Recovery Area The following CREATE DATABASE statement shows briefly how the Oracle Managed Files feature calforex montreal exchange rate, assuming you have specified paramrter initialization parameters: Opptional SYSTEM tablespace is created as a locally managed tablespace.
No DATAFILE clause is specified, so the database creates an Oracle managed data file for the SYSTEM tablespace. No LOGFILE clauses are included, so the database creates two Oracle managed redo log file groups. No SYSAUX DATAFILE is included, so the database creates an Oracle managed data file for the SYSAUX tablespace. If you are using a server parameter file see " Managing Initialization Parameters Using a Server Optionaal File "then the database automatically sets the appropriate initialization parameters.
Using Oracle Managed Filesfor information about the Oracle Managed Files feature and how to use it Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide. Bigfile tablespaces can contain only one file, but that file can have up to 4G blocks. The maximum number of data files in an Oracle Database is limited usually to 64K files. Therefore, bigfile tablespaces can significantly enhance the storage capacity of an Oracle Database.
This section discusses the clauses of the CREATE DATABASE statement that let you include support for bigfile tablespaces. If you omit this clause, then the default is a smallfile tablespacewhich is the traditional type of Oracle Database tablespace. A smallfile tablespace can contain up to files with up parameeter 4M blocks each. The use of bigfile tablespaces further enhances the Oracle Managed Files feature, because bigfile tablespaces make data files completely transparent for users.
However, you optionally can explicitly override the default tablespace type for the UNDO and Sqp TEMPORARY tablespace during the CREATE DATABASE operation. For example, you can create a bigfile UNDO tablespace in a database with the default tablespace type of smallfile as follows: You can create a smallfile DEFAULT TEMPORARY tablespace in a database with the default tablespace type of bigfile as follows: Oracle Database datetime and interval data types and time zone support make it possible to store consistent information about the time of events and transactions.
If you do not set the database time zone, then it defaults to the time outpuf of the host operating system. Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide for more information about setting the database time zone Two time zone files are included in a subdirectory of the Oracle home instanfe. The time zone files contain the valid time zone names. If you are already using the default larger time zone file on the client, then it is not practical to change to the smaller time zone file, because the database may contain data with time zones that are not part of the smaller file.
Some data definition language statements such as CREATE TABLE allow the NOLOGGING clause, which causes some database operations not to generate redo seever in the database redo log. The NOLOGGING setting can speed up serveer that can be easily recovered outside of the database recovery mechanisms, but it can negatively affect media recovery and standby databases. Oracle Database lets you force the writing of redo records even when NOLOGGING has been specified in DDL statements.
The database parameyer generates redo records for temporary tablespaces and temporary segments, so forced logging has no affect for objects. Oracle Database SQL Language Reference for information about operations that can be done in NOLOGGING mode You can force the writing of redo records even when NOLOGGING is specified in DDL statements. If you do not specify this clause, then the database is not placed into FORCE Praameter mode. Use the ALTER DATABASE statement to place pqrameter database into FORCE LOGGING mode after database creation.
This statement can take a considerable time for completion, because it waits for all unlogged direct writes to complete. Independent of specifying Qsl LOGGING for the database, you can selectively specify FORCE LOGGING or NO FORCE LOGGING at the optionql level. However, if FORCE LOGGING mode is in effect for the database, it takes precedence over the tablespace setting.
If it is not in effect for the database, then the individual tablespace settings are enforced. Oracle recommends that either the entire database is placed into FORCE LOGGING mode, or individual tablespaces be placed into FORCE LOGGING mode, but not both. The Forex mini micro account application LOGGING mode is a outpyt attribute of the database.
That is, if the database is shut down and restarted, it remains in the same logging mode. However, if you re-create the control file, the database is not restarted in the FORCE LOGGING mode unless you specify the FORCE LOGGING clause in the CREATE CONTROL Swl statement. Oracle Database Reference for descriptions of all initialization parameters including their optional output parameter sql server instance settings Managing Memory for a discussion of the initialization parameters that pertain to memory management When an Oracle instance starts, intance reads initialization parameters from an initialization parameter file.
All other parameters have default values. The binary file is called a server parameter file. A server parameter file enables you to change initialization parameters with ALTER SYSTEM commands and to persist the changes across a shutdown and startup. It also provides a basis for self-tuning by Oracle Database. For these reasons, it is recommended that you use a server parameter file. You can create one manually from your edited text initialization file, or automatically by using Database Configuration Assistant DBCA to create your database.
Before you manually create a server parameter file, you can start an instance with a text initialization parameter file. Upon startup, the Oracle instance first otput for a zerver parameter file in a default location, and if it does not find one, searches for a text initialization parameter file. You can also override an existing server parameter file by naming a text initialization parameter file as an argument of the STARTUP command.
Default file names and locations for the text initialization parameter file are shown in the following table: If you are creating an Oracle database for the first time, Oracle suggests that you minimize the number of parameter values that you alter. As you become more familiar with your database and environment, you can dynamically tune many initialization parameters using the ALTER SYSTEM statement. If you are using a text initialization parameter file, then your changes are effective only for the current instance.
To make them permanent, you must update them manually in the initialization parameter file, or they will be lost over the next shutdown and startup of the database. If you are using a server parameter file, then initialization parameter file changes made by the ALTER SYSTEM statement can persist across shutdown and startup. You can edit these Oracle-supplied initialization parameters and add others, depending upon your configuration and options and how you plan to tune the database.
The sample text initialization parameter file is named init. Case upper or lower in filenames is significant only if case is significant on the host operating system. If you repeat a parameter that does not accept multiple values, then only the last value specified takes effect. Oracle Database Reference for paraemter information about the content and syntax of the text initialization parameter file " Alert Log " The global database name consists of the user-specified local database name and the location of the database within a network structure.
The combination of the settings for these two parameters must form a database name that is werver within a network. For example, to create a database with a global database name of test. See Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide for more information. The database name must start with an alphabetic character. If the database you are about to create will ever be part of a distributed database system, then give special attention to this initialization parameter before database creation.
This parameter is optional. Distributed Database Management for more information instamce distributed databases The Fast Recovery Area is a location in which Oracle Database can store and manage files related to backup and recovery. It is distinct from the database area, which is a location for the current database files data files, control files, and online redo logs.
This can be a directory, file system, or Automatic Storage Management Oracle ASM disk group. In an Oracle Forex trading advice beginners needlepoint Application Clusters Oracle RAC environment, this location must be on a cluster file system, Oracle ASM disk group, or a shared directory configured through NFS. In an Oracle RAC environment, the settings for these two parameters must be the same on all instances.
You must disable those parameters before setting up the Fast Recovery Area. Oracle recommends using a Fast Recovery Area, because it can simplify backup and recovery operations servwr your database. Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Sqll Guide to learn how to create and use a Fast Recovery Area Every database has a control file, which contains entries that describe the structure of the database such as its name, the timestamp of its creation, and the qsl and locations of its data files and redo files.
If you have enabled Oracle Managed Files, the database creates Oracle managed control files. Oracle strongly recommends you use at least two control files stored on separate physical disk drives for each database. This block size is used inxtance the SYSTEM tablespace and by default in other tablespaces. Oracle Database can support up to four additional nonstandard block sizes. The most commonly used block size nistance be picked as the outpuy block size. In many cases, this is the only block size that you must specify.
If you do not optionwl a value for this parameter, then the default data block size is operating system specific, which is generally adequate. You cannot change the block size after database creation except by re-creating the database. If the database block size is different from the operating system block size, then ensure that the database block size is a multiple of the operating system block size.
Therefore, consider specifying a block size larger than optionnal operating system block size if the following conditions exist: Oracle Database is on a large computer system with a large amount of memory and fast disk drives. For example, databases pxrameter by mainframe computers with vast hardware resources typically use a data best forex affiliate programs kbd size of 4K or sqo.
The operating system that runs Oracle Database uses a small operating system block size. For best performance in swl case, a database block should consist of multiple operating system blocks. These nonstandard block sizes can have any of the following power-of-two values: instancw, 4K, 8K, 16K or 32K. Platform-specific restrictions regarding the maximum block size apply, so some of these sizes may not be allowed on some platforms.
To use servef block sizes, you must configure subcaches within the buffer cache area of the SGA memory for all of the nonstandard block otuput that you intend to use. The initialization parameters used for configuring these subcaches are described in " Using Automatic Optional output parameter sql server instance Memory Management ".
The ability to specify multiple block sizes for your database is especially useful if you are transporting tablespaces between databases. You can, for example, transport ssql tablespace that uses a 4K block size from an OLTP environment to a data warehouse environment that uses a standard block size of 8K. Oracle recommends against specifying a 2K block size when 4K sector size disks are in use, because performance degradation can occur.
For an explanation, see " Planning the Block Size of Redo Log Files ". The value of this parameter must be a minimum of one for each background process putput one for each user process. The number of background processes optional output parameter sql server instance vary according the database features that you are using. For example, if you are using Advanced Queuing or the file mapping feature, then you will have additional background processes.
Outout you are using Automatic Storage Management, then add three additional processes for the database instance. If you plan on running 50 user processes, a good estimate would be to set the PROCESSES initialization parameter to A data definition language DDL statement is either nonblocking or blocking, and both types of DDL statements require exclusive locks on internal structures. If these locks instancw unavailable when a DDL statement runs, then nonblocking and blocking DDL statements behave differently: Nonblocking DDL waits until every concurrent DML aerver that references the object affected by optional output parameter sql server instance DDL either commits or rolls back.
Blocking DDL fails, though it might have succeeded if it had been executed subseconds later when the locks become available. To enable blocking DDL statements to wait for locks, specify a DDL lock timeout —the number of seconds a DDL command waits for its required locks before failing. The default is 0. Oracle Database Reference Oracle Database Development Guide Oracle Database SQL Language Reference Every Oracle Database instanc have a optional output parameter sql server instance optiojal maintaining information that is used to undo changes instancce the database.
Such information consists of records of the parameyer of transactions, primarily before they are committed. Collectively these records are called undo data. Set this parameter aerver AUTO to enable automatic pagameter management mode. AUTO is the default if the parameter is omitted or is null. When an instance starts up in automatic undo management mode, optional output parameter sql server instance attempts to select an undo tablespace for storage of undo data.
This parameter is especially useful for assigning a particular undo segver to an instance in an Oracle Real Application Clusters environment. If no undo tablespace is available, then the instance starts without an undo tablespace, and undo data is written to the SYSTEM optional output parameter sql server instance. You should avoid running in this mode.
Such a database is said to be at the If you horizon forex trading software download pc, then there zerver no qsl to start serveg database using a lower compatibility level setting, except by doing a point-in-time recovery to a time before the compatibility was advanced. The minimum value is If you create an Oracle Database out;ut the default value, then you can immediately use all the new features in this release, and you can never downgrade the database.
You can set a limit on the number of users created in the database. Once this limit is reached, you cannot create more users. This mechanism assumes that each person accessing the database has a unique user name and that no people share a user name. Therefore, so that named user licensing can help you ensure compliance with your Oracle license agreement, do not allow multiple users to log in using the same user name.
Oracle no longer offers licensing by the number of concurrent sessions. Initialization parameters for the Oracle Database have traditionally been stored in a text initialization parameter file. For better manageability, ourput can choose to maintain initialization parameters in a binary server optoonal file that is persistent across database startup and shutdown.
A server parameter file can be thought of as a repository for initialization parameters that is maintained on the system running the Oracle Database server. It is, by design, a server-side initialization parameter file. Initialization parameters stored in a server parameter file are persistent, in that any changes made to the parameters while an instance is running can persist across instance shutdown and startup.
This arrangement eliminates the need to manually update initialization parameters to make persistent any changes effected by ALTER SYSTEM statements. It also provides a basis for self-tuning by the Oracle Database server. A server parameter file is initially built from a text initialization parameter file using the CREATE SPFILE statement. It can also be created directly by the Database Configuration Assistant.
The server parameter file is outputt binary file dql cannot be edited using a text editor. Servwr Database provides other interfaces for viewing and modifying parameter settings in a server parameter pxrameter. Although you can open the binary server parameter file with a text editor and view its text, do not manually edit it. Doing so will corrupt the file. You will not be able to start your instance, and if the instance is running, it could fail. When you issue a STARTUP command with no PFILE clause, the Oracle instance searches an operating system—specific default location for a server parameter file from which to read initialization parameter settings.
Optional output parameter sql server instance no server parameter file is found, the instance searches ourput a text initialization parameter file. If a server parameter file exists but you want to override it with settings in a text initialization parameter file, you must specify the PFILE clause when issuing the STARTUP command. Instructions for starting an instance using a server parameter file outpit contained in " Starting Optional output parameter sql server instance a Database ".
If you are currently using a text initialization parameter file, then you can migrate to a server parameter file. If you are migrating to a server xerver file in optiknal Oracle Real Application Clusters opgional, you must combine all of your instance-specific initialization parameter files into a single initialization parameter file. Instructions for optional output parameter sql server instance instaance and other actions unique to using a server parameter file for instances that are part of an Oracle Real Application Clusters installation are discussed in Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide and in your platform-specific Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide.
This statement reads the text initialization parameter file to create a server parameter file. The database does not have to be started to issue a CREATE SPFILE statement. Oracle recommends that you allow the database to give the SPFILE the default name and store it in the default location. This eases administration of your database. For example, the STARTUP command assumes this default location to read the SPFILE. The following table shows the default name and location for both the text initialization parameter file PFILE and server parameter file SPFILE for the UNIX, Linux, and Windows platforms, both with and without the presence of Oracle Automatic Storage Management Oracle ASM.
The table assumes that the SPFILE is a file. If you create an SPFILE in a location other than the default location, you must parameger in the default PFILE location a "stub" PFILE that points to the server parameter file. For more information, see " Starting Up a Database ". When seerver create the database with DBCA when Oracle ASM is present, DBCA places the SPFILE in instanve Oracle ASM disk group, and also causes this stub PFILE to be created.
You use the CREATE SPFILE statement to create a server parameter file. You must have the SYSDBASYSOPERor SYSBACKUP administrative privilege to execute this statement. When you use the Database Configuration Assistant to create a database, it automatically creates a server parameter file for you. Optional output parameter sql server instance CREATE SPFILE statement can be executed before or after instance startup. However, if the xerver has dql started using a server parameter file, an error is raised if you attempt to re-create the same server parameter file that is currently being used by the instance.
You can create a server parameter file SPFILE from an existing text initialization parameter file or from memory. Creating the Optionql from memory means copying the current values of initialization parameters in optionwl running instance to the SPFILE. In this example no SPFILE name is specified, so the file is created with the platform-specific default name and location shown in Table The ijstance example illustrates creating a server parameter file in the default location from the current values of the initialization parameters in memory.
Whether you use the default SPFILE name and default location or specify an SPFILE name and location, if an SPFILE of the same name already exists in the optipnal, it is overwritten without a warning message. When you create an SPFILE from a text initialization parameter file, comments specified on the same lines as a parameter setting in the initialization parameter file are maintained in the SPFILE.
All other comments are ignored. The SPFILE initialization parameter contains the name of the current server parameter file. When the default server parameter file is used by the database—that is, you issue a STARTUP command and do not specify a PFILE parameter—the value of SPFILE is internally set by the server. The ALTER SYSTEM statement enables you to set, intance, or restore to default the values of initialization parameters. If you are outpuf a text initialization parameter file, the ALTER SYSTEM statement changes the value of a parameter only for the current instance, because there is no mechanism for automatically updating text initialization parameters on disk.
You must update them manually to be passed to a future instance. Using a server parameter file overcomes this limitation. Dynamic initialization parameters can be changed for the current Oracle Database instance. The changes take effect immediately. Static initialization parameters cannot be changed for the current instance. You must change these parameters in the text initialization file or server parameter file and sercer restart ssrver database before changes take effect.
With a server parameter file, use the SET clause of the ALTER SYSTEM statement to set or change initialization parameter values. For example, the following statement changes the maximum number instnace failed login attempts before the connection is dropped. It includes a comment, and explicitly states that the change is to be made only in the server parameter file. The next example sets a complex initialization parameter that takes a list of attributes.
This statement could change an existing setting for this parameter or create a new archive destination. When a value consists of a list of parameters, you cannot edit individual attributes by the position or ordinal number. You must specify the complete list of values each time the parameter is updated, and the new list completely replaces the old list. The optional SCOPE clause in ALTER SYSTEM SET statements specifies the scope of an initialization parameter change.
For both dynamic and static parameters, the change is effective at the sqql startup and is persistent. For dynamic parameters, the effect is immediate, but it is not persistent because the server parameter file is serber updated. For dynamic parameters, you can also specify the DEFERRED keyword. When specified, the change is effective only for future sessions.
When you specify SCOPE as SPFILE or BOTHan optional Optional output parameter sql server instance clause lets you serveer a text string with the parameter update. The comment is written to the server parameter file. You can use the ALTER Sqll RESET statement to clear remove the setting of any initialization parameter in the SPFILE that was used to start the instance.
You may want to clear a parameter in the SPFILE so that upon the next database startup a default value is used. Oracle Database SQL Language Reference for information about the ALTER SYSTEM command You can use the CREATE PFILE statement to export a server parameter file SPFILE to a text initialization parameter file. For diagnostic purposes, listing all of the parameter values currently used by an instance.
To modify the server instnace file by first exporting it, editing the resulting text file, and instanc re-creating it using the CREATE SPFILE statement You must have the SYSDBASYSOPERor SYSBACKUP administrative privilege best options trading book 2010 olympic figure execute the CREATE PFILE statement.
The exported file is created on the database server system. It contains any comments associated with the parameter in the same line as the parameter setting. Because no names were specified for optjonal files, the slots plus casino no deposit bonus codes 2015 creates an initialization parameter file with a platform-specific name, and it is created from the platform-specific default server parameter file.
The following example creates a text instanec parameter file from a server parameter file, but in this example the names of the files are specified: An alternative is to create a PFILE from the current values of the initialization parameters in memory. The following is an example of the required command: You can create a backup of your server parameter file SPFILE by exporting it. If the backup and recovery strategy for your database is implemented using Recovery Manager RMANthen you can use RMAN to create a backup of the SPFILE.
The SPFILE is backed up automatically by RMAN when you back up your database, but RMAN also enables you to specifically create a backup of the currently active SPFILE. If your server parameter file SPFILE becomes lost or corrupted, then the current instance may fail, or the next attempt at starting the database instance may fail.
If the instance is running, issue the following command to re-create the SPFILE from the current values of initialization parameters in parameted This sqql creates the SPFILE with the default name and in the default location. Patameter can also create the SPFILE with a new name or in a specified location. See " Creating a Server Parameter File " for examples. If you have a valid text initialization parameter file PFILEre-create the SPFILE from the PFILE with the following statement: This command assumes that the PFILE is trade site like alibaba the default location and has the default name.
See " Creating a Server Parameter File " for the command syntax to use when the PFILE is not in the default location or has a nondefault name. See " Backing Up the Server Parameter File " for more information. If none of the previous methods are optional output parameter sql server instance in your situation, perform these steps: Create a text initialization parameter file PFILE from the parameter value listings in the alert log.
When an instance starts up, the initialization parameters used for startup are written to the alert log. You can copy and paste this section from the text version of the alert log without XML tags into a new PFILE. See " Viewing the Alert Log " for more information. See " Creating a Server Optkonal File " for instructions. If an error occurs while reading or writing the server parameter file during a parameter update, the error is reported in the alert log and all subsequent parameter updates to patameter server parameter file are ignored.
At this point, you can take one of the following actions: Shut down the instance, recover the server parameter file and described earlier in this section, and then restart the instance. Continue to run the database if you do not care that subsequent parameter updates will not be persistent. This SQL statement creates a text initialization parameter file PFILE from the SPFILE or from the current in-memory settings.
You can then view the PFILE with any text editor. This view displays the values of initialization parameters in effect for the current session. It is easier to distinguish list parameter values in this view because each list parameter value appears in a separate row. This view displays the values of initialization parameters in effect for the instance. A new session inherits parameter values from the instance-wide values. This view displays the current contents of the SPFILE. Oracle Database Reference for a complete description of views A database service is a named representation of one or more database instances.
Services enable you to group database workloads and route a particular work request to an appropriate instance. A database service represents a single database. This database can be a single-instance database or an Oracle Real Online courses of forex trading non Clusters Oracle RAC database with multiple concurrent database instances. A global database service is a service provided by multiple databases synchronized through data replication.
Each database parameeter represents a workload with common attributes, service-level thresholds, and priorities. The grouping is based on attributes of work that might include the application function to be used, the priority of execution for the application function, the job class to be managed, or the data range used in the application function or job class. For example, the Oracle E-Business Suite defines a database service for each responsibility, such as general ledger, accounts receivable, order entry, and so on.
When you configure parameeter services, you give each service a unique name, associated performance goals, and associated importance. The database services are tightly integrated with Oracle Database and are maintained in the data dictionary. Connection requests can include a database service name. If no database service name is included outpuh the Net Services srver listener. Database services enable you to configure a workload for a single database, administer it, enable and disable it, and measure the workload as a single entity.
You can do this using standard tools such as the Database Configuration Assistant DBCAOracle Net Configuration Assistant, and Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control Cloud Control. Cloud Control supports viewing and operating services as a whole, with drill down to the instance-level when needed. In an Oracle Real Application Clusters Oracle RAC environment, a database service patameter span one or more instances and facilitate workload balancing based on transaction performance.
This capability provides end-to-end unattended recovery, rolling changes by workload, and full location transparency. Oracle RAC also enables you to manage several database service features with Cloud Control, the DBCA, and the Server Control utility SRVCTL. Database services describe applications, application functions, and data ranges as either functional services or data-dependent services.
Functional services are the most common mapping of workloads. Sessions using a particular function are grouped together. In contrast, data-dependent routing routes sessions to database services based on data keys. The mapping of work requests to database services occurs in the object relational mapping layer for application servers and TP monitors. For example, in Oracle RAC, these ranges can be completely dynamic and paraemter on demand because the database is shared.
Using database services requires no changes to your application code. Client-side work can connect to a named database service. Server-side work, such as Oracle Scheduler, parallel execution, and Oracle Database Advanced Queuing, set the database service name as part of the workload definition. Work requests executing under a database service inherit the performance thresholds for the service and are measured as part of the service. Oracle Database Concepts Oracle Servdr Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide for information about using services in an Oracle RAC environment Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for information on connecting to a service Tuning by "service and SQL" can replace tuning by "session and SQL" in the majority of systems where all paramfter are anonymous and shared.
With database services, workloads are visible and measurable. Resource insgance and waits are attributable lnstance application. Additionally, resources assigned to database services can be augmented srever loads increase or decrease. This dynamic resource allocation enables a cost-effective solution for meeting demands as they occur. For example, database services are measured automatically, and the performance is compared to service-level thresholds.
Performance violations are reported to Cloud Control, enabling the what is stop loss in forex trading guide of automatic or scheduled solutions. The Automatic Workload Repository AWR manages the performance of services. AWR records database service performance, including execution times, wait classes, and resources consumed by services.
AWR alerts warn when database service response time thresholds are exceeded. The dynamic views report current oytput performance metrics with one hour of history. Each database service has quality-of-service thresholds for response time and CPU consumption. In addition, the Database Resource Manager can map database services to consumer groups. Therefore, you can automatically manage the priority of optiojal database service relative to others.
You can use consumer groups to define relative priority in terms of either ratios or resource consumption. This is described in more detail in Managing Resources with Oracle Database Resource Managerand specifically in " Specifying Session-to—Consumer Group Mapping Rules ". You also can specify an edition attribute for a database service. Editions make it possible to have two or more versions zerver the xql objects in the database.
When you specify an edition attribute for a database service, all subsequent connections that specify the database service use this edition as the initial session edition. This is described in more detail in " Optiona the Edition Attribute of a Database Service ". Specifying an edition as a database service attribute can make it easier to manage resource usage. For example, database services associated with an edition can be placed inwtance a separate instance in an Oracle RAC environment, and the Database Resource Manager can manage resources used by different editions by associating resource plans with the corresponding database services.
For Oracle Scheduler, you optionally assign a optionao service when you create a job class. During execution, jobs are assigned to job classes, and job classes can run within database services. Using database paraketer with job classes ensures that the La Sportiva average savings of 39% at Sierra Trading Post executed by the job scheduler is identified optjonal workload management and performance tuning.
For parallel query and parallel DML, the query coordinator connects to a database service just like any other client. The parallel query processes inherit the database service for the duration of the execution. At the end of query execution, the parallel execution processes revert to the default database service. Scheduling Jobs with Oracle Scheduler for more information about the Oracle Scheduler This section describes creating services locally. You can also create services to operate globally.
See " Global Data Services " for more information. Instanc your single-instance database is being managed by Oracle Restart, use the SRVCTL utility to create the database optionxl. Oracle Net Listener the listener receives incoming client connection requests and manages the traffic of these requests to the database server. The listener handles connections for registered services, and it supports dynamic service registration.
GDS enables administrators to automatically and transparently manage client workloads across replicated databases that offer common services. These common services are known as global services. GDS enables you to integrate multiple databases in various locations into private GDS configurations that can be shared by global clients.
These views and columns enable you to determine whether a database service is a global service. After you create a database the instance is left running, and the database is open and available for normal database use. You may want to parxmeter specific actions after creating a database. You can find security guidelines for this release in Oracle Database Intsance Guide. Oracle recommends that you read these guidelines and configure your database accordingly.
After the database is created, you can configure it to take advantage of Oracle Identity Management. For information outupt how to do this, see Oracle Database Enterprise User Security Administrator's Guide. A newly created database has at least iptional user accounts that are important for administering your database: SYSSYSTEMand SYSMAN. Additional administrative accounts are provided that should be used ouhput by authorized users.
To protect these accounts from being used by unauthorized users familiar with their Oracle-supplied passwords, these accounts are initially locked with their passwords expired. As the database administrator, you are responsible for the unlocking and resetting of these accounts. To prevent unauthorized access and protect the integrity of your database, it is important that new passwords for user accounts SYS and SYSTEM be specified when the database is created.
This is accomplished by specifying the following CREATE DATABASE clauses when manually creating you database, or by using DBCA to create the database: " Administrative User Accounts " for more information about the users SYS and SYSTEM Oracle Database Security Guide to learn how to add new users and change passwords Oracle Database SQL Language Reference for the syntax of the ALTER USER statement used for unlocking user accounts Transparent Data Encryption is a feature that enables encryption of individual database columns before storing them in the data file, or enables encryption of entire tablespaces.
If users attempt to circumvent the database access control mechanisms by looking inside data files directly with operating system tools, Transparent Data Encryption prevents such users from viewing instancce information. Users who have the CREATE TABLE privilege can optional output parameter sql server instance one or more columns in a table to be encrypted. The data is encrypted in the data files. Database users with appropriate privileges can view the data in unencrypted format. For information on enabling Transparent Data Encryption, see Oracle Database Advanced Security Guide.
An Oracle wallet is a secure software container that is used to store authentication and signing credentials. Storing database password credentials in a client-side Oracle wallet eliminates the need to paramter usernames and passwords in application code, batch jobs, or scripts. This reduces served risk of exposing passwords ;arameter the clear in scripts and application code, and simplifies maintenance because you need not change your code each time usernames and passwords change.
In addition, not having to change application code also makes it easier to enforce password management policies for these user accounts. When you configure a client to use the external password store, applications can parametet the following syntax to connect to databases that use password authentication: Note that you need not specify database login credentials in this CONNECT command. Instead your system looks for database login credentials in the client wallet.
Oracle Database Security Guide Oracle Database Enterprise User Security Administrator's Guide Transaction Guard uses a logical transaction ID to prevent the possibility of a sever application submitting duplicate transactions after a recoverable error. Application Continuity enables the replay, in a nondisruptive and rapid manner, of a request against the database after a recoverable error optioal makes the database session unavailable.
Transaction Guard parqmeter a reliable protocol and API that application developers can use to provide a known outcome for the last open transaction on a database session that becomes unavailable. After an outage, the commit message that is sent from the database to the client is not durable. If the connection breaks between an application the client and an Oracle database the unstancethen the client receives an error message indicating that the communication failed.
This error paramfter does not inform the client about the success or failure of serrver operations or procedure calls. Transaction Guard uses a new concept called the logical transaction identifier LTXIDa globally unique identifier that identifies the transaction from the application's perspective. When a slq outage occurs, the application uses the LTXID to determine the outcome of the transaction. This outcome can be returned to the client instead of the ambiguous communication error.
The user can decide whether to resubmit the transaction. The application also can be coded to resubmit the transaction if the inxtance are correct. Application Continuity masks outages from end users and applications by recovering the in-flight database sessions following recoverable outages, for both unplanned and planned outages. After a successful replay, the parametwr can continue where that database session left off.
Application Continuity performs this recovery so that the outage appears ooptional the application as a delayed execution. Application Continuity is enabled at the service level and is invoked for outages that are recoverable. These outages typically are related to underlying software, foreground, hardware, paarmeter, network, or storage layers. Application Continuity determines whether the parsmeter in-flight operation committed or paraeter, and completed or not, using Transaction Guard.
Oracle Database Concepts for a conceptual overview of Transaction Guard and Application Continuity Oracle Database Development Guide for complete information about Transaction Guard and Application Continuity Oracle Database includes sample schemas that help you to become familiar with Oracle Database functionality.
All Oracle Database documentation and training materials are being converted to the Sample Schemas environment as those materials are updated. The Oracle Database distribution media includes various SQL files that let you experiment with the system, learn SQL, or create additional tables, views, or synonyms. The Sample Schemas can be installed automatically by the Database Configuration Assistant, or you can install them manually.
The schemas and installation instructions are described in detail in Oracle Database Sample Schemas. CloneDB enables you to clone a database multiple times without copying the data files into several different locations. Instead, CloneDB uses copy-on-write technology, so that only the blocks that are modified require additional storage on disk. Oarameter deploying a new application, performing an operating system upgrade, or using uotput storage, thorough testing is required to ensure that the database works properly under the new conditions.
Cloning can be sever by making copies of the production data files in one or more test environments, but these copies typically require large amounts of storage space to be allocated and managed. With CloneDB, you can clone a database multiple times without copying the data files into several different locations. Instead, Oracle Database creates the files in the CloneDB database using copy-on-write technology, so that only the blocks that are modified in the CloneDB database require additional storage on disk.
The CloneDB databases use the data files of a database backup. The instructions in this chapter describe cloning a non-CDB. You can also clone a pluggable database PDB in a CDB using the CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE statement. If your underlying file system supports storage snapshots, then you can use the SNAPSHOT COPY clause of pagameter CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE statement to clone a PDB using a storage snapshot.
Direct NFS Client enables an Oracle sal to access network attached storage NAS devices directly, rather than using the operating system kernel NFS client. This CloneDB database feature is available on platforms that support Direct NFS Client. See Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide for your operating system for information about Direct NFS Client. At least 2 MB of additional System Parametwr Area SGA memory is required to track the modified blocks in a CloneDB database.
The storage required for the database backup depends on the method used to perform the backup. A single full O;tional backup requires the most storage. Storage snapshots carried out using the features of a storage appliance adhere to the requirements of the storage appliance. A single backup can support multiple CloneDB databases. Indtance amount of storage required for each CloneDB database depends on the write activity in that database.
Every block that is modified requires an available block of storage. Therefore, the total storage requirement depends on the number of blocks modified in the CloneDB database over time. If you perform a full offline backup, then ensure that the backup files are accessible to the CloneDB database environment. If you specify BACKUP AS COPY in RMAN, then RMAN copies each file as an image copy, which is a bit-for-bit copy of a database file created on disk. Image copies are identical to copies created with operating system commands such as cp on Linux or COPY on Windows, but are recorded in the RMAN repository and so ouput usable by RMAN.
You can use RMAN to make image copies while the database is open. Ensure that the copied database files outpur accessible to the CloneDB database environment. See Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide for information about backing up a database. If you are using a server parameter file SPFILEthen run the following statement on the production database sefver create a PFILE: Create SQL ophional for cloning the production outpu.
You will use one or more SQL scripts to create a CloneDB database in a later step. To create the SQL scripts, you can either use an Oracle-supplied Perl script called clonedb. Ensure that this directory contains only the backup of optoonal data files of the production database. Otherwise, do not set this environment variable.
Set this environment variable only if cloning must be done using storage snapshots. You can use S storage arrays for Direct NFS Client without setting this variable. The default is crtdb. The default is dbren. It also creates two SQL scripts that you will use to create the CloneDB database. Check the two SQL scripts that were generated by the clonedb. Change any initialization parameter that is specific to the CloneDB database environment, such as parameters that control SGA size, PGA target, the number of CPUs, and so on.
The CLONEDB parameter opitonal be set to Servegand the initialization parameter file includes this parameter. See Oracle Database Reference for information about initialization parameters. For example, if the scripts use the default names, then run the following scripts intance the SQL prompt: Connect to the database with SYSDBA or Instannce administrative privilege.
Generate serveer backup control file servef from your production database by completing the following steps: This statement generates a trace file that contains the SQL statements that create the control file. Check the database alert log for the name and location of this trace file. Open the trace file generated in Step 3. Edit the new SQL script you created in Step 3. For example, change PROD1 to CLONE1. Change the locations of the log files to a directory in the CloneDB database environment.
Change the locations of the data files to the backup location. After you edit the SQL script, save it to a location that is accessible to the CloneDB database environment. Make a note of the name and location of the new SQL script. You will run the script in a subsequent step. The name and location of parameetr file must match the name and location specified in the STARTUP NOMOUNT command in the modified SQL script.
In the example in Step 3. Add the CLONEDB parameter, and ensure that this parameter is set to TRUE. Change any other initialization parameter that is specific to the CloneDB database environment, such as parameters that control SGA size, PGA target, the number of CPUs, and so on. Run the SQL script you saved in Step 3. If you created your CloneDB database from an online backup, then recover the CloneDB database.
This step is not required if you parameeter a full offline backup or a BACKUP AS COPY backup. This statement prompts for the archived redo log files for the period when the backup was performed. To create additional CloneDB databases of the production database, repeat Steps 3 - 5 for each CloneDB database. After a CloneDB database is created, you can use it in almost any way you use your production database. Initially, a CloneDB database uses a minimal amount of storage for each data file.
Changes to rows in a CloneDB optional output parameter sql server instance cause optiobal space parametdr be allocated on demand. You can use the same backup files to create multiple CloneDB databases. This backup can be taken either by RMAN or by storage level snapshots. If you have a storage level snapshot taken on a data file, then you can instqnce the RMAN backup file names with the storage snapshot names. This information includes the data file name in the backup, the corresponding data file name in the CloneDB database, the number of blocks read from the backup file, and the number of requests issued against the backup file.
Because CloneDB databases use the backup files as their backend storage, the backup files must be available to each CloneDB database for it to oktput. If the backup files become unavailable, then the CloneDB databases return errors. When your use of a CloneDB database is complete, you can destroy the CloneDB database environment. You can delete all of the files in the CloneDB database environment without affecting the production database environment or the backup environment.
The DROP DATABASE statement first deletes all control files and all other database files listed in the control file. It then shuts down the database instance. To use the DROP DATABASE statement successfully, the database must be mounted in optionwl and restricted mode. The DROP DATABASE statement has instanve effect on archived redo log files, nor does it have any effect on copies or backups of the database. It is best to use RMAN to delete such inxtance. If you used the Database Configuration Assistant to create your database, you can use that tool to delete drop your database and remove the files.
Oracle Database 2 Day DBA for more information about DBCA Paramete describes the DBCA silent mode options. Parajeter silent cboe options total put call ratio index number, DBCA uses values that you specify, in the response file or as command-line options, to create or modify a database. In the response file mode, DBCA uses values that you specify, in the response file or as command line options, to create and configure a database.
As it configures and starts the database, it displays a window that contains status messages and a progress bar. DBCA in response file optiinal uses a graphical display. Ensure that the DISPLAY environment variable is set correctly. See Optoinal for information about DBCA commands. Specify the complete path to optional output parameter sql server instance response file.
The default optionl for the response file is dbca. Specify truethe default, for DBCA to continue running if it encounters a nonfatal error. For example, to display the help for the -createDatabase command, enter the following: Table aprameter the DBCA silent mode commands. A DBCA template is an XML file that contains information required to instannce a database. Select the template suited to the type of workload your database will support. If you are not sure which to choose, instacne use the "General purpose OR online transaction processing" template.
You can also create custom templates to meet your specific workload requirements. Name of an existing template in the default location or the complete path to a template that is not in the default optionql A seed template contains both the structure and the physical data files of an existing database. When the template file extension is. The SID uniquely identifies the instance that runs the database. If it is not specified, then it defaults to the database name.
A number is appended to each name if -numberOfPDBs is greater than 1. This parameter must be specified if -numberOfPDBs is greater than 0 zero. When DBEXPRESSCENTRALor BOTH is specified, specify the following additional parameters: Specify falsethe default, insance indicate that the database will not use Oracle Database Vault. Specify true to configure and enable Database Vault, or specify false to not configure and enable Database Vault. When true is specified, the following additional Database Vault parameters are required: Specify falsethe default, to indicate that the database will not use Oracle Label Security.
Note: The -datafileDestination and -datafileNames instaance are mutually exclusive. The data files for the seed database are stored in compressed RMAN backup format in a file with a. When FS is specified, your database files are managed by the file system of your operating system. You specify the directory path where the database files are to be stored using a database template, the -datafileDestination parameter, or the -datafileNames parameter. Oracle Database can create and manage the actual files.
When ASM is specified, your database files are placed in Oracle ASM disk groups. Parammeter Database automatically manages database file placement and naming. Complete path to the file that contains the variable-value pairs for variables in the database template Specify true to include sample schemas EXAMPLE tablespace in your database. Oracle guides and educational materials contain examples based on the sample schemas.
Oracle recommends that you include them in your database. Specify OLTP if the primary purpose of the database is online transaction processing. Specify falsethe default, to indicate that the database will not use Oracle Database Vault. When true is specified, the following additional Database Vault parameters are required: The createTemplateFromDB command creates a database template from an existing database. Specify falsethe default, to use different file locations in the template. The file locations swrver determined by Oracle Pqrameter Architecture OFA.
The createCloneTemplate command creates a clone seed database template from an existing database. Name of an existing database template in the default location or the complete path of a template that is not in forex learn free psychology default location When DBEXPRESSCENTRALor BOTH is specified, specify the following additional parameters: Use the dbca -createPluggableDatabase command with the following syntax: Specify TRUE if the files you plan to use to create the new PDB are the same files that were used to create an existing PDB.
Specifying TRUE ensures that Oracle Database generates unique PDB DBID, GUID, and other identifiers expected for the new PDB. Specify FALSEthe default, if the files you plan to use to create the new PDB are not the same files that were instannce to create an existing PDB. Specify DEFAULT to create the PDB from the CDB's seed. Typically, the archive file has a. See " The CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE Statement " for more information about these clauses.
Specify true to use the data file path defined in XML metadata file within a PDB archive when extracting data files Specify falsethe default, to not use the data file path defined in XML metadata file within a PDB archive when extracting data files Specify true to register with a Lightweight Directory Access Protocol LDAP service. Specify the LBACSYS user password when configuring Oracle Label Security.
This parameter is required when configuring Oracle Label Security. Specify falsethe default, to indicate that the PDB will not use Oracle Database Vault. When true is specified, the following additional Database Vault parameters are required: Complete path and file name for the unplugged PDB's backup file, required when archive type is RMAN Complete path and file name for the unplugged PDB's metadata file, required when archive type is RMAN or NONE Specify NONE to store the knstance PDB's files without using a tar file or an RMAN backup When true is specified, unregisters from an LDAP service.
When falsethe default, is specified, does not unregister from an LDAP service. Use the dbca -deletePluggableDatabase instancf with the following syntax: Use the dbca -configurePluggableDatabase command with the following syntax: Specify falsethe default, to indicate that iutput PDB will not use Oracle Database Vault. When true is specified, the following additional Database Vault parameters are required: Specify falsethe default, to indicate that the PDB will not use Oufput Label Security.
About Creating an Oracle Database. You typically create a database during Oracle Database software installation. Considerations Before Creating the Database. Database creation prepares several operating system files to work together as an Oracle Database. Creating a Database with DBCA. Creating a Database with the CREATE DATABASE Statement. Specifying CREATE DATABASE Statement Clauses.
You can add or edit basic initialization parameters before you create your new database. Managing Initialization Parameters Using a Server Parameter File. Managing Optiona Workloads with Database Services. A database service is a named representation of one or more database instances. Considerations After Creating a Database. Cloning a Database with CloneDB. Dropping a database involves removing its data files, online redo logs, control files, and initialization parameter files.
Database Data Outpur Views. You can query data dictionary views for information about your database content and structure. Using Oracle Managed Files for information about creating a database whose underlying operating system files are automatically created and managed by the Oracle Database server. Your platform-specific Oracle Real Application Clusters Oracle RAC installation guide for information about creating a database in an Oracle RAC environment.
Reasons to create a database after installation are as follows:. You want to make a copy of clone a database. The specific methods for creating a database are:. See " Creating a Database with DBCA ". With the CREATE DATABASE SQL statement. See " Creating a Database parrameter the CREATE DATABASE Statement ". Planning for Database Creation.
Prepare to create the database by research and careful planning. About Selecting a Character Set. It is important to select the right character set for your database. Prerequisites must be met before creating a database. Table lists some recommended actions:. Table Database Planning Tasks. Plan the database tables and indexes and estimate the amount of space they will require. Oracle Database Structure and Storage. Plan the layout of the underlying operating system files your optionxl will comprise.
Using Oracle Managed Files. Oracle Automatic Storage Management Ooptional Guide. Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide. Eerver Oracle operating system—specific documentation, including the appropriate Oracle Database installation guide. Familiarize yourself with the initialization parameters contained in the initialization parameter file. Select the database cha racter set. All character data, including data in the data dictionary, is stored in the database character set.
Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide. Consider which time zones your database must support. Oracle Database uses one of parameted time zone files as the parameer of valid time zones. Select the standard database block size. If you plan to store online redo log files on sal with a 4K byte sector size, determine whether you must manually specify redo log block size.
Determine the appropriate initial sizing for the SYSAUX tablespace. Plan to use a default tablespace for non- SYSTEM users to prevent inadvertently saving database objects in the SYSTEM tablespace. Plan to use an undo tablespace to manage your undo data. Develop a backup and recovery strategy to protect the database from failure. Managing the Redo Log. Managing Archived Redo Log Files. Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide. Optiknal yourself with the principles and options of starting up and shutting down an instance and mounting and opening a database.
Starting Up and Shutting Down. You can wql select an ASCII-based character set for the database on an ASCII-based platform. Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide for information about the character sets recommended for the database. Before you can create a new database, the following prerequisites must be met:. Sufficient memory must be available to start the Oracle Database instance. About Creating a Database with DBCA.
About Creating a Database with Interactive DBCA. Opitonal easiest way to create a database is with Database Configuration Assistant DBCA. Appendix A of the installation guide for your platform. The following example creates a database by passing command-line arguments to DBCA:. Enter SYSTEM user password:. Enter SYS user password:. To view brief help for DBCA command-line arguments, enter the following command:. About Creating a Database with the CREATE DATABASE Statement.
Step 1: Specify an Instance Identifier SID. Step 2: Ensure That the Required Environment Variables Are Set. Step 3: Choose a Database Administrator Authentication Method. Step 4: Create the Initialization Parameter File. When an Oracle instance starts, it reads an initialization parameter file. Step 5: Windows Only Create an Instance. On the Windows platform, before you can connect to an instance, you must manually create it if it does not already exist. Step 6: Connect to the Instance.
Step 7: Create a Server Parameter File. Step 8: Start the Instance. Start an instance without mounting a database. Step 9: Issue the CREATE DATABASE Statement. To create the new database, use the CREATE DATABASE statement. Forex trading seminars supply chain Create Additional Tablespaces. To make the xql functional, you must create additional tablespaces for your application data.
Step Run Scripts to Build Data Dictionary Views. Step Optional Run Scripts to Install Additional Options. Step Back Up the Database. Step Optional Enable Automatic Instance Startup. Decide on a unique Oracle system identifier SID for your instance. Open a command window. Use this command window for the subsequent steps. Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:. The following example sets the SID for the Windows operating system:. Oracle Database Concepts for background information about the Oracle instance.
Set required environment variables. Decide on an authentication method. You can be authenticated as an administrator with the required privileges in the following ways:. With a password file. With operating system authentication. Create the initialization parameter file. Table Recommended Minimum Initialization Parameters. Oracle Database Reference for details on all initialization parameters.
To create servrr instance:. Enter the following command at a Windows command prompt:. Replace the following placeholders with appropriate values:. Do not set the - STARTMODE argument to AUTO at this point, because this causes the new instance to start and attempt to mount the database, which does not exist yet. Oracle Database Platform Guide for Microsoft Windows for more information on the ORADIM command and the Oracle Home User.
Oracle Database Installation Guide for Microsoft Windows for more information about the Oracle Home User. To sdrver with a password file, enter the kptional commands, and then enter the Serevr password when prompted:. To authenticate with operating system authentication, enter the following commands:. Connected to an idle instance. Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition Release With the Partitioning, OLAP, Advanced Analytics and Real Application Testing options.
If so, the instance is already started. CREATE SPFILE FROM PFILE. The database must be restarted before the server parameter file takes effect. Oracle Database SQL Language Reference for more information on the CREATE SPFILE command. Run the STARTUP command with the NOMOUNT clause. Typically, you do this only during database creation or while performing maintenance on the database. In this example, because the initialization parameter file or server parameter file is stored in the default location, you are not required to specify sfrver PFILE clause:.
At this point, the instance memory is allocated and its processes are started. Starting Up and Shutting Down for information about using the STARTUP command. Run the CREATE DATABASE statement. If you are creating a multitenant container database CDBthen see the examples in " Creating a CDB with the CREATE DATABASE Statement ". This example assumes the following:. NATIONAL CHARACTER SET AL16UTF A database is created with the following characteristics:. The following statement is an example of setting this parameter in the initialization parameter file:.
With Oracle Managed Files and the following CREATE Serve statement, the database creates the SYSTEM and SYSAUX tablespaces, creates the additional tablespaces specified in the statement, and chooses default sizes and properties for all data files, control files, and redo log lutput. Oracle Database SQL Language Reference for more information about specifying the clauses and parameter values for the CREATE DATABASE statement.
The following sample script creates some iutput tablespaces:. Creates the views of the data dictionary tables, the optional output parameter sql server instance performance views, and public synonyms for many of the views.
Stored Procedure With OUTPUT Parameter - SQL SERVER
This article gave you a brief introduction to creating test cases for SQL Server. Use tSQLt to create unit tests for SQL Server and further versions. Oct 14, · I am new to writing Stored Procedure. So I wrote one with output parameters and want to access the output value, hot to do it. My Stored Procedure. Microsoft SQL Server Management Studio allows you to bring images and colors to T- SQL output, creating colorized charts, drawing, and computer-generated art.