Cotton Industry India Cotton Trade India Cotton Exports
Mohamed Ali Pasha accepted the proposition and granted himself the monopoly on the sale and export of cotton in Egypt; and later dictated cotton should be grown in preference to other crops. Trde closures occurred in Lancashire, and it was failing to compete with foreign industry. Dunavant Enterprises, based in Memphis, Tennesseeis the leading cotton broker in Africa, with hundreds of purchasing agents. Free Trial of Dashboard with. The Egyptian government of Viceroy Isma'il took out substantial loans from European bankers and stock exchanges.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a bollor protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae. The fiber is almost pure cellulose. Under natural conditions, the cotton bolls will tend to increase the dispersal of the seeds. The greatest diversity of wild cotton species is found in Mexico, followed by Australia and Africa.
The fiber is Cotton Industry India Cotton Trade India Cotton Exports often spun into yarn or thread and used to make a soft, breathable textile. The use of cotton for fabric is known to date to prehistoric times; fragments of cotton fabric dated from BC have been excavated in Mexico and between BC and BC in the Indus Valley Civilization.
Although cultivated since antiquity, it was the invention of the cotton gin that lowered the cost of production that led to its widespread use, and it is the most widely used natural fiber cloth in clothing today. Current estimates for world production are about 25 million tonnes or million bales annually, accounting for 2. China is the world's largest producer of cotton, but most of this is used domestically.
The United States has been the largest exporter for many years. While cotton fibers occur naturally in colors of white, brown, pink and green, fears of contaminating the genetics of white cotton have led many cotton-growing locations to ban the reputable adoption agencies in singapore us dollar of colored cotton varieties.
The earliest evidence of cotton use in the Indian subcontinent has been found at the site of Mehrgarh and Rakhigarhi where cotton threads have been found preserved in copper beads; these finds have been dated to Neolithic between and BC. Cotton was grown upriver, made into nets, and traded with fishing villages along the coast for large supplies of fish. The Spanish who came to Mexico and Peru in the early 16th century found the people growing cotton and wearing clothing made of it.
The Greeks and the Arabs were not familiar with cotton until the Wars of Alexander the Greatas his contemporary Megasthenes told Seleucus I Nicator of "there being trees on which wool grows" in "Indica". According to the Columbia Encyclopedia :  Cotton has been spun, woven, and dyed since prehistoric times. It clothed the people of ancient India, Egypt, and China.
Hundreds of years before the Christian era, cotton textiles were woven in India with matchless skill, and their use spread to the Mediterranean countries. In Iran Persiathe history of cotton dates back to the Achaemenid era 5th century BC ; however, there are few sources about the planting of cotton in pre-Islamic Iran. The planting of cotton was common in MervRay and Pars of Iran. In Persian poets ' poems, especially Ferdowsi 's Shahnamethere are references to cotton "panbe" in Persian.
Marco Polo 13th options theory and trading down a car refers to the major products of Persia, including cotton. John Chardina French traveler of the 17th century who visited the Safavid Persiaspoke approvingly of the vast cotton farms of Persia. Jumel, propositioning the then ruler, Mohamed Ali Pashathat he could earn a substantial income by growing an extra-long staple Maho Barbadence cotton, in Lower Egypt, for the French market.
Mohamed Ali Pasha accepted the proposition and granted himself the monopoly on the sale and export of cotton in Egypt; and later dictated cotton should be grown in preference to other crops. Exports continued to grow even after the reintroduction of US cotton, produced now by a paid workforce, and Egyptian exports reached 1. During the late medieval period, cotton became known as an imported fiber in northern Europe, without any knowledge of how it was derived, other than that it was a plant.
Because Herodotus had written in his HistoriesBook III,that in India trees grew in the wild producing wool, it was assumed that the plant was a tree, rather than a shrub. This aspect is retained in the name for cotton in several Germanic languages, such as German Baumwollewhich translates as "tree wool" Baum means "tree"; Wolle means "wool". Noting its similarities to wool, people in the region could only imagine that cotton must be produced by plant-borne sheep.
John Mandevillewriting instated as fact the now-preposterous belief: "There grew there [India] a wonderful tree which bore tiny lambs on the endes of its branches. These branches were so pliable that they bent down to allow the lambs to feed when they are hungrie [ sic ]. By the end of the 16th century, cotton was cultivated throughout the warmer regions in Asia and the Americas. The English East India Company introduced the Britain to cheap calico and chintz cloth on the restoration of the monarchy in the s.
Initially imported as a novelty side line, from its spice trading posts in Asia, the cheap colourful cloth proved popular and overtook the EIC's spice trade by value in the late 17th century. The EIC embraced the demand, particularly for calicoby expanding its factories in Asia and producing and importing cloth in bulk, creating competition for domestic woollen Cotton Industry India Cotton Trade India Cotton Exports linen textile producers.
The impacted weavers, spinners, dyers, shepherds and farmers objected and the calico question became one of the major issues of National politics between the s and the s. Parliament began to see a decline in domestic textile sales, and an increase in imported textiles from places like China and India. Seeing the East India Company and their textile importation as a threat to domestic textile businesses, Parliament passed the Calico Act, blocking the importation of cotton cloth.
As there was no punishment for continuing to sell cotton cloth, smuggling of the popular material became commonplace. Indissatisfied with the results of the first act, Parliament passed a stricter addition, this time prohibiting the sale of most cottons, imported and domestic exempting only thread Fustian and raw cotton. The exemption of raw cotton from the prohibition initially saw 2 thousand bales of cotton imported annually, to become the basis of a new indigenous industry, initially producing Fustian for the domestic market, though more importantly triggering the development of a series of mechanised spinning and weaving technologies, to process the material.
This mechanised production was concentrated in new cotton millswhich slowly expanded till by the beginning of the 's seven thousand bales of cotton were imported annually, and pressure was put on Parliament, by the new mill owners, to remove the prohibition on the production and sale of pure cotton cloth, as they could easily compete with anything the EIC could import. The acts were repealed intriggering a wave of investment in mill based cotton spinning and production, doubling the demand for raw cotton within a couple of years, and doubling it again every decade, into the 's  India's cotton-processing sector changed during EIC expansion in India in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
From focusing on Cotton Industry India Cotton Trade India Cotton Exports the British market to supplying East Asia with raw cotton. As the Artisan produced textiles were no longer competitive with those produced Industrially, and Europe preferring the cheaper slave produced, long staple American, and Egyptian cottons, for its own materials. InLewis Paul and John Wyattof BirminghamEngland, patented the roller spinning machine, as well as the flyer-and-bobbin system for drawing cotton to a more even thickness using two sets of rollers that traveled at different speeds.
Later, the invention of the James Hargreaves ' spinning jenny inRichard Arkwright 's spinning frame in and Samuel Crompton 's spinning mule in enabled British spinners to produce cotton yarn at much higher rates. From the late 18th century on, the British city of Manchester acquired the nickname " Cottonopolis " due to the cotton industry's omnipresence within the city, and Manchester's role as the heart of the global cotton trade. Production capacity in Britain and the United States was improved by the invention of the cotton gin by the American Eli Whitney in Before the development of cotton gins, the cotton fibers had to be pulled from the seeds tediously by hand.
By the late s a number of crude ginning machines had been developed. However, to produce a bale of cotton required over hours of human labor,  making large-scale Cotton Industry India Cotton Trade India Cotton Exports uneconomical in the United States, even with the use of humans as slave labor. The gin that Whitney manufactured the Holmes design reduced the hours down to just a dozen or so per bale.
Although Whitney patented his own design for a cotton gin, he manufactured a prior design from Henry Odgen Holmesfor which Holmes filed a patent in By the s, India was no longer capable of supplying the vast quantities of cotton fibers needed by mechanized British factories, while shipping bulky, low-price cotton from India to Britain was time-consuming and expensive.
This, coupled with the emergence of American cotton as a superior type due to the longer, stronger fibers of the two domesticated native American species, Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadenseencouraged British traders to purchase cotton from plantations in the United States and plantations in the Caribbean. By the midth century, " King Cotton " had become the backbone of the southern American economy. In the United States, cultivating and harvesting cotton became the leading occupation of slaves.
During the American Civil WarAmerican cotton exports slumped due to a Union blockade on Southern portsand also because of a strategic decision by the Confederate government to cut exports, hoping to force Britain to recognize the Confederacy or enter the war. This prompted the main purchasers of cotton, Britain and Franceto turn to Egyptian cotton. British and French traders invested heavily in cotton plantations.
The Egyptian government of Viceroy Isma'il took out substantial loans from European bankers and stock exchanges. After the American Civil War ended inBritish and French traders abandoned Egyptian cotton and returned to cheap American exports, [ citation needed ] sending Egypt into a deficit spiral that led to the country declaring bankruptcy ina key factor behind Egypt's occupation by the British Empire in During this time, cotton cultivation in the British Empireespecially Australia and India, greatly increased to replace the lost production of the American South.
Through tariffs and other restrictions, the British government discouraged the production of cotton cloth in India; rather, the raw fiber was sent to England for processing. The Indian Mahatma Gandhi described the process: In the United States, Southern cotton provided capital for the continuing development of the North. The cotton produced by enslaved African Americans not only helped the South, but also enriched Northern merchants.
Much of the Southern cotton was trans-shipped through northern ports. Cotton remained a key crop in the Southern economy after emancipation and the end of the Civil War in Across the South, sharecropping evolved, in which landless black and white farmers worked land owned by others in return for a share of the profits. Some farmers rented the land and bore the production costs themselves.
Until mechanical cotton pickers were developed, cotton farmers needed additional labor to hand-pick cotton. Picking cotton was a source of income for families across the South. Rural and small town school systems had split vacations so children could work in the fields during "cotton-picking. Cotton remains a major export of the southern United Statesand a majority of the world's annual cotton crop is of the long-staple American variety.
Soils usually need to be fairly heavy, although the level of nutrients does not need to be exceptional. In general, these conditions are met within the seasonally dry tropics and subtropics in the Northern and Southern hemispheres, but a large proportion of the cotton grown today is cultivated in areas with less rainfall that obtain the water from irrigation. Production of the crop for a given year usually starts soon after harvesting the preceding autumn.
Cotton is naturally a perennial but is grown as an annual to help control pests. The area of the United States known as the South Plains is the largest contiguous cotton-growing region in the world. While dryland non-irrigated cotton is successfully grown in this region, consistent yields are only produced with heavy reliance on irrigation water drawn from the Ogallala Aquifer.
Since cotton is somewhat salt and drought tolerant, this makes it an attractive crop for arid and semiarid regions. As water resources get tighter around the world, economies that rely on it face difficulties and conflict, as well as potential environmental problems. In the days of the Soviet Unionthe Aral Sea was tapped for agricultural irrigation, largely of cotton, and now salination is widespread. Naturally colored cotton can come in red, green, and several shades of brown.
The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Bt naturally produces a chemical harmful only to a small fraction of insects, most notably the larvae of moths and butterfliesbeetlesand fliesand harmless to other forms of life. In many regions, the main pests in commercial cotton are lepidopteran larvae, which are killed by the Bt protein in the transgenic cotton they eat. This eliminates the need to use large amounts of broad-spectrum insecticides to kill lepidopteran pests some of which have developed pyrethroid resistance.
This spares natural insect predators in the farm ecology and further contributes to noninsecticide pest management. But Bt cotton is ineffective against many cotton pests, however, such as plant bugsstink bugsand aphids ; depending on circumstances it may still be desirable to use insecticides against these. A study done by Cornell researchers, the Center for Chinese Agricultural Policy and the Chinese Academy of Science on Bt cotton farming in China found that after seven years these secondary pests that were normally controlled by pesticide had increased, necessitating the use of pesticides at similar levels to non-Bt cotton and causing less profit for farmers because of the extra expense of GM seeds.
The secondary pests were mostly miridae Cotton Industry India Cotton Trade India Cotton Exports bugs whose increase was related to local temperature and rainfall and only continued to increase in half the villages studied. Moreover, the increase in insecticide use for the control of these secondary insects was far smaller than the reduction in total insecticide use due to Bt cotton adoption. A Chinese study concluded that Bt cotton halved the use of pesticides and doubled the level of ladybirds, lacewings and spiders.
GM cotton acreage in India grew at a rapid rate, increasing from 50, hectares in to The total cotton area in India was This made India the country with the largest area of GM cotton in the world. GM cotton crop was 4. There are also a number of other cotton seed companies selling GM cotton around the world. However, scientists have silenced the gene that produces the toxin, making it a potential food crop.
This institution determines the allowed practices for pest control, growing, fertilizing, and handling of organic crops. These are popular for baby clothes and diapers. Under Cotton Industry India Cotton Trade India Cotton Exports definitions, organic products do not use genetic engineering. All natural cotton products are known to be both sustainable and hypoallergenic. Historically, in North America, one of the most economically destructive pests in cotton production has been the boll weevil.
Due to the US Department of Agriculture 's highly successful Boll Weevil Eradication Program BWEPthis pest has been eliminated from cotton in most of the United States. This program, along with the introduction of genetically engineered Bt cotton which contains a bacterial gene that codes for a plant-produced protein that is toxic to a number of pests such as cotton bollworm and pink bollwormhas allowed a reduction in the use of synthetic insecticides.
Other significant global pests of cotton include the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella ; the chili thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis ; the cotton seed bug, Oxycarenus hyalinipennis ; the tarnish plant bug, Lygus lineolaris ; and the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperdaXanthomonas citri subsp. Most cotton in the United States, Europe and Australia is harvested mechanically, either by a cotton picker, a machine that removes the cotton from the boll without damaging the cotton plant, or by a cotton stripper, which strips the entire boll off the plant.
Cotton strippers are used in regions where it is too windy to grow picker varieties of cotton, and usually after application of a chemical defoliant or the natural defoliation that occurs after a freeze. Cotton is a perennial crop in the tropics, and without defoliation or freezing, the plant will continue to grow. Cotton continues to be picked by hand in developing countries.
Rayon is derived from a natural cellulose and cannot be considered synthetic, but requires extensive processing in a manufacturing process, and led the less expensive replacement of more naturally derived materials. A succession of new synthetic fibers were introduced by the chemicals industry in the following decades.
Acetate in fiber form was developed in Nylonthe first fiber synthesized entirely from petrochemicals, was introduced as a sewing thread by DuPont infollowed by DuPont's acrylic in Some garments were created from fabrics based on these fibers, such as women's hosiery from nylon, but it was not until the introduction of polyester into the fiber marketplace in the early s that the market for cotton came under threat.
Cotton production recovered in the s, but crashed to pre levels in the early s. These include terrycloth for highly absorbent bath towels and robes ; denim for blue jeans ; cambricpopularly used in the manufacture of blue work shirts from which we get the term " blue-collar " ; and corduroyseersuckerand cotton twill. Socksunderwearand most T-shirts are made from cotton. Bed sheets often are made from cotton. Cotton also is used to make yarn used in crochet and knitting.
Fabric also can be made from recycled or recovered cotton that otherwise would be thrown away during the spinning, weaving, or cutting process. While many fabrics are made completely of cotton, some materials blend cotton with other fibers, including rayon and synthetic fibers such as polyester. It can either be used in knitted or woven fabrics, as it can be blended with elastine to make a stretchier thread for knitted fabrics, and apparel such as stretch jeans. Cotton can be blended also with hector trader forex trading course 3 as Linen-cotton blends which give benefit of both plant materials which wrinkle resistant, lightweight, breathable and can keep heat more effectively than only linen.
These blends are thinner and lighter, but stronger than only cotton. The first Chinese paper was made of cotton fiber. The cottonseed which remains after the cotton is ginned is used to produce cottonseed oilwhich, after refining, can be consumed by humans like any other vegetable oil. The cottonseed meal that is left generally is fed to ruminant livestock; the gossypol remaining in the meal is toxic to monogastric animals.
Cottonseed hulls can be added to dairy cattle rations for roughage. During the American slavery period, cotton free expert advisor for metatrader 4 not responding bark was used in folk remedies as an abortifacientthat is, to induce a miscarriage. Gossypol was one of the many substances found in all parts of the cotton plant and it was described by the scientists as 'poisonous pigment'.
It also appears to inhibit the development of sperm or even restrict the mobility of the sperm. Also, it is thought to interfere with the menstrual cycle by restricting the release of certain hormones. The term also may apply to the longer textile fiber staple lint as well as the shorter fuzzy fibers from some upland species. Linters are traditionally used in the manufacture of paper and as a raw material in the manufacture of cellulose. In the UK, linters are referred to as "cotton wool".
This can also be a refined product absorbent cotton in U. The first medical use of cotton wool was by Sampson Gamgee at the Queen's Hospital later the General Hospital in BirminghamEngland. Shiny cotton is a processed version of the fiber that can be made into cloth resembling satin for shirts and suits. However, it is hydrophobic does not absorb water easilywhich makes it unfit for use in bath and dish towels although examples of these made from shiny cotton are seen.
The name Egyptian cotton is broadly associated with quality products, however only a small percentage of "Egyptian cotton" products are actually of superior quality. Most products bearing the name are not made with cotton from Egypt. It is considered the next best quality after high quality Egyptian cotton by some authorities. Pima cotton is grown in the American southwest. Not all products bearing the Pima name are made with the finest cotton.
The Pima name is now used by cotton-producing nations such as Peru, Australia and Israel. Lisle is composed of two strands that have each been twisted an extra twist per inch than ordinary yarns and combined to create a single thread. The yarn is spun so that it is compact and solid. This cotton is used mainly for underwear, stockings, and gloves. Colors applied to this yarn are noted for being more brilliant than colors applied to softer yarn.
This type of thread was first made in the city of Lisle, France now Lillehence its name. Africa's share of the cotton trade has doubled since Neither area has a significant domestic textile industry, textile manufacturing having moved to developing nations in Eastern and South Asia such as India and China. In Africa, cotton is grown by numerous small holders.
Dunavant Enterprises, based in Memphis, Tennesseeis the leading cotton broker in Africa, with hundreds of purchasing agents. It operates cotton gins in Uganda, Mozambique, and Zambia. In Zambia, it often offers loans for seed and expenses to thesmall farmers who grow cotton for it, as well as advice on farming methods. Cargill also purchases cotton in Africa for export. Dunavant expanded in Africa by buying out local operations.
This is only possible in former British colonies and Mozambique; former French colonies continue to maintain tight monopolies, inherited from their former colonialist masters, on cotton purchases at low fixed prices. The largest nonproducing importers are KoreaTaiwanRussiaand Japan. In the United States, the state of Texas led in total production as of while the state of California had the highest yield per acre.
However, many farmers in developing countries receive a low price for their produce, or find it difficult to compete with developed countries. The Environmental Justice Foundation has campaigned against the prevalent use of forced child and adult labor in cotton production in Uzbekistanthe world's third largest cotton exporter. The fair trade system was initiated in with producers from CameroonMali and Senegal.
Damaged cotton is sometimes stored at these temperatures to prevent further deterioration. They agreed on a strategy to sequence the genome of cultivated, tetraploid cotton. The sequencing consortium first agreed to sequence the D-genome relative of cultivated cotton G. It is nearly one-third the number of bases of tetraploid cotton ADand each chromosome is only present once. Its genome is roughly twice the size of G. Part of the difference in 1 minute scalping forex method between the two genomes is the amplification of retrotransposons GORGE.
Once both diploid genomes are assembled, then research could begin sequencing the actual genomes of cultivated cotton varieties. This strategy is out of necessity; if one were to sequence the tetraploid genome without model diploid genomes, the euchromatic DNA sequences of the AD genomes would co-assemble and the repetitive elements of AD genomes would assembly independently into A and D sequences respectively.
Then there would be no way to untangle the mess of AD sequences without comparing them to their diploid counterparts. The public sector effort continues with the goal to create a high-quality, draft genome sequence from reads generated by all sources. The public-sector effort has generated Sanger reads of BACs, fosmids, and plasmids as well as reads. These later types of reads will be instrumental in assembling an initial draft of the D genome.
Intwo companies Monsanto and Illuminacompleted enough Illumina sequencing to cover the D genome of G. This public relations effort gave them some recognition for sequencing the cotton genome. Once the D genome is assembled from all of this raw material, it will undoubtedly assist in the assembly of the AD genomes of cultivated varieties of cotton, but a lot of hard work remains.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Types of cotton Main article: History of cotton. Main article: Calico Acts. Main article: Bt cotton Main article: List of cotton diseases. Bacterial blight of cotton. China Cotton Association CCA. Cotton Research and Promotion Act. Diplomacy of the American Civil War Cotton and the British economy. International Cotton Advisory Committee.
International Year of Natural Fibres. New Orleans Cotton Exchange. New York Cotton Exchange. Cotton Bale Dimensions " accessed 5 October Based on archaeological evidence, preserved cotton fabric has been found in Harappa, Chanbu-daro in Pakistan Rakhigiri and Lothal in India. Journal of Archaeological Science. A History of India. ISBNp. Linguistics, Archaeology and the Human Past. Indus Project Occasional Paper 3 series. Kyoto: Indus Project, Research Institute for Humanity and Nature.
The International Cotton Trade. Cambridge, England: Woodhead Publishing Ltd. Kiva, the Journal of Southwest Anthropology and History. Gene Pool Diversity and Crop Improvement, Volume 1. Retrieved 9 April Textiles of Southeast Asia: tradition, trade and transformation revised ed. International Institute of Social History. Department of Economics, University of Warwick. Retrieved 5 December Transactions of the ASABE. Cotton: The Biography of a Revolutionary Fiber. Central Asia and the Caucasus.
Keepers of the Spring. October Naturally Colored Cotton: Resistance to Changes in Color and Durability When Refurbished. With Selected Laundry Cotton Industry India Cotton Trade India Cotton Exports. California Agricultural Technology Institute. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Agricultural Sciences in China. Retrieved 24 September Retrieved 7 August Retrieved on 27 November Archived from the original PDF on 5 July Retrieved 9 November Retrieved September 20, Journal of American Studies.
Extra long staple cotton. A complete Dictionary of Dry Goods and History of Silk, Linen, Wool and other Fibrous Substances. Retrieved 3 September Pascal 14 January "Out of Africa: Cotton and Cash". Retrieved 6 April CRS Report for Congress. Retrieved 2 October Retrieved 3 August Clothing materials and parts. Not logged in Talk Contributions Create account Log in. Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Wikipedia store. Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact page.
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Even Bangladesh has left Pakistan far behind on the list of Textile-Exporting countries
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family. Check Todays Cotton Rate in India on Economic Times. Know the latest Cotton News, Cotton rate, Cotton price in India, Cotton details on its MCX futures live prices. India Exports Business Trade - Indian Exporters Directory providing information about export from India, Indian exporters, Indian companies engaged in export trade.