Ps3 output cable options healthy
Check their website for the nearest. Pre-loaded apps include an internet browser a "Content Manager" app for monitoring data saved to the device,  an email app, a music playing app,  a photo app,  and a video playing app. My quick guess was 4W, which assumed an 8-ohm load Swedish made Servel 8 cubic foot propane outpht. SHORT WAVE Antenna —the.
Welcome to over 50 articles on. Available both as Web pages click the title and as PDF files for easier printing click PDF. Available both ps3 output cable options healthy Web pages click the title and, in a ps3 output cable options healthy cases as PDF ps3 output cable options healthy for easier printing click PDF. TCJ Issue Archives New Aikido All-in-One PCB.
I liked the Heathy power supply so much that I decided to add it to the Aikido Optins PCB, making a new All-in-One design. I own many, say 30, old-school power transformers that offer center-tapped high-voltage secondary and both 5Vac and 6. They just aren't suited to modern tube circuits that use both solid-state rectifiers and regulated eater power supplies. The PS-Tube-SS has a brother PCB. I started to write sister PCB, but the 5Y3 tube rectifier made me change my mind.
Sometimes a cigar is just a 5Y3, but not this time. Where the PS-Tube-SS was designed for those who wish to build a tube power amplifier, the PS-Tube was designed for those who wish to build a tube-based line stage or phono stage—using a tube-rectifier-based power supply Like the original Unbalancer, the Unbalancer-Two circuit accepts a balanced input signal and delivers an unbalanced, single-ended output.
Besides performing the conversion from balanced to unbalanced, the circuit provides a little gain usually, about 1. It's a familiar problem: you would like to build a tube power amplifier, but you are daunted by the thought of having outpuy deal with the high-voltage power supply. The solution to ooptions problem is the new GlassWare PS-Tube-SS kit.
Simple and self-contained, the PS-Tube-SS PCB holds two heathy RC filters for the high-voltage outputs and negative-bias-voltage power supply and 12Vdc power supply for the input stage The Triad VPT toroidal transformer holds two secondaries and two healthu You already ps3 output cable options healthy that the ps3 output cable options healthy Select-C switch allows you to switch between output coupling capacitors—in stereo.
The new Select-CM allows you to do this in mono. In other words, this is a special capacitor selector switch that is designed to work within dual-mono setups, either line-stage or power amplifiers. Ps3 output cable options healthy Phono preamp, Rev. The Aikido Healtby returns—and yes, it has been a long, long time.
What is an Aikido PH-1? The Aikido PH-1 is an excellent tube-based phono stage. It holds two Aikido gain stages per channel and vable a passive RIAA equalization network in between the two. In other words, four Aikido gain helthy reside on the PCB. One Aikido PH-1board is all that is needed for stereo phono pre-amplification New Three-Position Oprions Control.
Few stereo systems off a tone control and the few that do hold a bass and treble control, which seldom prove adequate. Often a recording is not so much deficient in just the lows or the highs, but out of sonic tilt in terms of frequency, much like a photograph that is tilted A New Low-Voltage Bipolar Power Supply. The PS, small bipolar power supply is no more, but it finds its replacement in the PS The PS is a tad bit bigger, being 3.
Where most of the increased PCB space went to is the lager heatsinks. It uses an LM for the positive output and an LM for the negative output. The PCB-mount power transformer is the same one used in the Tr-PS-1, a MagneTek FS Here is something that I have wanted for myself optione the longest time; its a rotary switch for phono playback that presents three positions: mono, mute, and stereo PS All-in-One Tube Power Supply.
The PS is a new All-in-One power-supply kit for tube lovers. It is an All-in-One due to it holding everything, including the power transformer Tr-PS Regulated Low-Voltage PS. Brother to the Tr-PS-2, the Tr-PS-1 is a low-voltage, regulated 12Vdc or 9Vdc or The Tr-PS-1 holds its own power transformer Tr-PS High-Voltage Power Supply. Power supplies, particularly high-voltage power supplies, are often the big stumbling block to a successful completion of a tube-based ps3 output cable options healthy project.
Getting AAPL Weeklies vs AAPL Options With One Week Left to Expire PCB and all the capacitors, diodes, and resistors needed to populate the PCB is only half the problem. The other half is getting the power transformer. Well, with the new Tr-PS-2 power supply both problems are solved at once, as the Tr-PS-2 holds its own power transformer I have been writing about the cathode-coupled amplifier for a long time now and many have asked for a PCB based on this circuit.
Well, the wait is over. Back in blog numberI revealed a clever cathode-coupled-amplifier variation that greatly enhanced the circuit's PSRR Brace yourself something completely different: the PS-SS, a new GlassWare ehalthy supply kit, isn't for tube fanciers, as it's intended use is in solid-state power amplifiers PS Power Supply Kit.
The PS is a new GlassWare power supply kit for tube fanciers. What another power supply? Yes, indeed, as it fills a gap. The PS was designed for those who need a high-voltage power supply with two sets of regulated low-voltage power supplies usually for powering heaters. Why would anyone need two low-voltage regulators? More than you might imagine New Octal Aikido Cathode Follower. The noval Aikido cathode follower ACF PCB now has a brother: the octal ACF PCB. Some just prefer the sound from octal tubes, such as the famous 6SN7, so its ps3 output cable options healthy was felt, myself included PS Bipolar Power Supply Kit.
Recently, I have been experimenting with cathode-coupled circuits that required a high-voltage, bipolar power supply, which is why had the PS PCBs made. The boards are small, being only 4in by 4in, but pack quite a wallop due to the large-valued capacitors used. Two RC-based pi filters smooth the bipolar DC outputs New CCDA Octal PCB. The octal complement to the noval CCDA is here. New Select-5 Signal Selector Switch. I have a new signal selector switch, the Select-5, which—in spite of what its name seems to imply—allows you select between four input signals and four signal oprions Tube CAD, Se Amp CAD, Audio Gadgets.
For those of you who still have old computers running Windows XP bit or any other Windows bit OS, Cabke have setup the download availability of my old old standards: Tube CAD, SE Amp CAD, and Audio Gadgets. So many have asked that I had to do it What is that in the image above? LOOK, it's a bird, it's a plane, NO IT'S SUPERMAN, no wait, it is a very fuzzy photo of the new Universal Octal PCB and ceramic socket, which includes the black plastic 2in hole trim and four sets of aluminum, hex standoffs and screws and rubber O-rings, but—alas—not the NOS Sylvania 6SN My family face the same problem every Christmas: What do you get the man who has everything but commonsense and taste?
Quite a big problem that. Well, I decided to give myself a stocking stuffer. I have been eager ps3 output cable options healthy try one of my 6in by 6in PCBs in a Hammond extruded aluminum enclosure. I have used this type of box many times before, but never with so wide a PCB. Ouhput is the result Every capacitor has its positive and negative attributes. The problem we humans face is that we can readily hear commissions, but fail to spot omissions The new PCB is 6in by 5in and, like all GlassWare PCBs, is crazy overbuilt, with extra thick double-sided PCB material and heavy 2-ounce copper traces.
Each channel gets its own large power supply RC filter, whose voltage rating can be a low Vdc, perfect for high idle current applications, such as cabls amplifiers; or, Vdc, perfect for line-amplifier use After many a season returns the Unbalancer. This will be welcome news to many audiophiles, particularly for those who need to convert their DAC's balanced output to an unbalanced output signal, as the Unbalancer can readily receive its balanced signal.
If a stand-alone DAC already holds unbalanced outputs, why should I bother using its balanced outputs? The answer is heaothy the balanced outputs are usually taken earlier in the circuitry chain, which allows us to avoid having our delicate signal passing through anymore OpAmps This new Aikido stereo PCB is a brother of the Noval Aikido. In fact the PCB is the same size, 6in by 6in.
And like the Noval Aikido, the Octal Aikido PCB holds a large RC power-supply filter in each channel, but no power supply. The reason behind this is that you are free to whichever power supply you wish: tube rectification form some, regulated solid-state high-voltage for others The PS is a ouhput power-supply RC filter. In other words, it is an add-on for an existing power supply.
It could, however, be used with a GlassWare Rectifier-1, which would create complete high-voltage power supply. Outpkt my previous post, I promised the unveiling of the new GlassWare Tilt Control. This is a simple affair: outpyt small PCB 1. It is a passive design, which entails a -3dB insertion losses and whose center frequency is Hz and its nominal input impedance is k CCDA Noval Stereo PCBs. Almost square, being 6 inches wide and 5. Note the pattern: no more All-in-One designs New Aikido 12Vac PCB.
Why yet another Aikido PCB? A very good question that deserves a very good answer. I know that many customers are using four 6DJ8 tubes with the Aikido LV PCB and a 24Vdc power supply, as they write me to tell me about how great their Aikido sounds. Well, here is the thing: I have tried using 6DJ8 with 24Vdc and they sound so much worse than the 6GM8 tubes in the same circuit that I would never recommend the pairing.
Yes, yes, I know that their setups my indeed sound much better than their previous solid-state or tube line stage. Aikido Noval Stereo PCBs. No more All-in-One, in other words. Why no power supply portion? Simplest answer is that because no one size fits all. Some want to use an external power supply, some want fully-regulated high-voltage power supplies, some want many cascading RC filters and no regulation, some want only solid-state rectifiers, some want only vacuum-tube rectifiers, some want DC on ooptions heaters, but no regulation, some want AC on the heaters The standard A3 position stepped attenuator is 9 inches long, whereas this new A3 Mini is only 5.
Where the resistors lay flat against the standard A3 PCB, the resistors stand perpendicular to the PCB on the new A3 Mini attenuator The Aikido Cascode amplifier is a compound circuit consisting of a cascode input stage amplifier and an Aikido cathode follower output stage buffer. In a nutshell, the cascode circuit offers two huge features: gain, lots of gain; and low, very low input ps3 output cable options healthy thus, it delivers high gain and wide bandwidth The Noval CCDA has a brother.
When I laid out the new version of the noval CCDA, I also brought the Hea,thy CCDA PCB into Rev. CCDA Noval Rev A. Last year, I laid out a new version of the noval CCDA PCB, bringing it into Rev. PS New Bipolar Low-Voltage Regulator. I have been playing with OpAmps lately and I needed a small bipolar low-voltage regulator that would fit in small boxes that were too optiohs for my big B-PS Trim Position Stepped Attenuator.
The Trim-1 single-channel, stepped attenuator offers 11 positions and can viewed as high-quality replacement for a potentiometer A-5 Stereo Stepped Attenuator. This stereo attenuator offers 36 volume settings, but only holds ps3 output cable options healthy 6-position rotary switches and 24 resistors. This cleverly designed stepped attenuator exploits both the series-attenuator and the shunt-attenuator configurations to yield the best compromise between flexibility, performance, and cost One of the best sellers at the GlassWare-Yahoo store is the Select-2 three-input signal selector switch and PCB.
I love this signal selector, as it switches the grounds along with the signal hots On the other hand, most audio gear is ohtput with all the input and output RCA jack grounds tied together at the rear panel by a long strip of bus wire. In other words, you don't get to choose how to handle the ground connections, as the descission has been made for you.
In such a setup, the following selector swith can come in handy, as it only switches right and left chanel hots. Moreover, the Select-4 allows up to six input signal sources to be used The following item has been available, but I haven't made a big deal about it, so many do not know that it exists. With a balanced system, we can easily flip the phase of the signal with the GlassWare Select-Phase switch and PCB. I get a lot of e-mail asking if I believe in phase.
In other words, do I believe that we can hear the difference that phase reversal makes? The 1-ohm resistor is a 4W device, so the maximum current output is 2A PS-7 High-Voltage Power Supply. This new power supply board is only 2 by 3 inches big and holds a very simple circuit. Mono Position Balanced Stepped Attenuator. Good news for the those audiophiles who run balanced systems. The BM-1 is a new stepped attenuator that I have designed.
It uses 24 resistors and two rotary switches: one position, 1-pole, shorting switch; one 6-position, 2-pole, shorting switch. The configuration is interesting, as it consists of a shunt stepped outut cascading into two series stepped attenuators, one for each phase New Mono Step Attenuator. I have a new stepped attenuator design to offer the DIY audio world, the M1 mono stepped attenuator; and I just love it. The M1 stepped attenuator combines both series and ladder stepped attenuators into a single functional attenuator.
The hexlthy attenuator's job is to provide six fine steps of attenuation, each step being -1dB; the series attenuator, eleven coarse steps of attenuation, each step being -6dB. The result is that 66 attenuation settings are possible. In other words, we can set the attenuation to any value from 0dB to dB in -1dB decrements PS-9 New Heater Power Supply. Over the years, I have hard-wired together the following circuit many times, as I often have used solid-state rectification in my own tube power amplifiers and I didn't want the 5Vac rectifier winding to go to waste.
Fable circuit is a simple voltage doubler that converts the 5Vac into 12Vdc for the power amplifier's frontend circuitry New Balanced Step Attenuator. Like its unbalanced predecessor, this stepped attenuator offers 36 steps of attenuation for two channels of signal. The center rotary switch controls both channels and presents coarse decrements, while the two flanking switches afford fine volume decrements for each channel I ran out of this PCB a while ago.
I then made a few improvements to the PCB, so it is now in Rev. I tested the new board by building a tube-based headphone amplifier, this time with 6N1P and 6H30 tubes. The bass is rock solid and it slams. I swear I can feel the bass notes in my chest. The music comes out alive and forceful. On the other hand, my octal equivalent sounds more mellow, in a radiant, glowing way, which is altogether beguiling. It isn't sloppy by any means; it's just more yang cabel yin.
These two HPAs prove that no one HPA can ever be perfect, as different music requires different amplification The old 24V Aikido PCB was a hit. I sold many PCBs and kits and I have gotten great comments from users. I still listen to headphones with it and it sounds amazingly good as a line-stage amplifier. Moreover, when a supply of a trendy tube grows small, two things cble obviously, the price goes up and, all too often, the quality goes down.
Ps3 output cable options healthy voltage power supplies are a pain. One thing that I love about OpAmp circuits is being able to hook up two 9-volt batteries and run, with just a single bypass capacitor across the positive and negative power supply pins—no lethal voltages and no heater power supply to worry about. Low-voltage power supplies are a breeze PS-4 Tube Power Supply. On this small four by four inch, extra thick 0. The low-voltage regulator is meant to power the tube heaters; the high-voltage power supply, pz3 rest of the tube circuit But I decided that since octal tubes seem more retro than 9-pin tubes and the Janus regulator is a pure-tube design that even ouyput a tube rectifier, why not wed a Janus regulator to the Aikido stage instead?
Is it a piece of artwork, worthy of window display in exclusive art galleries? Or is it the long-awaited analog replacement to the famed Tice digital clock? Or is it a chronometer of exceptional precision? Or is a timepiece of uncanny beauty, suitable for adorning walls of Beverly Hills mansions and Manhattan penthouses?
Or is it something like a badge of affiliation to an almost cult-like adoration of vacuum tubes? It is also my latest kit offering Now for something completely different I have created small, 4 by 6 inch PCB that holds a low-voltage bipolar regulated power supply for solid-state use. I have been experimenting with OpAmp circuits lately and I needed a killer low-voltage, bipolar power supply New and Slightly Improved.
The PS-1 regulator PCBs were part of the shipment; but now the boards are in revision B. I made the PCB half an inch taller, which allowed a fatter nealthy to be used. In general, a fat, short heatsink is better than a tall, skinny heatsink. The intrinsic thermal resistance of the metal is effectively placed in parallel in a fat heatsink; in series, a tall heatsink.
The upshot is that the PS-1 regulator now holds the same Aavid Thermalloy BG heatsink that the Janus and H-PS-1 regulators use. This chubby heatsink boasts a thermal resistance of only 3. New Signal and Capacitor Selector Switches. I have created small, 1. The selector switch assembly accepts three stereo inputs, with both the hot and grounds of each signal source to be heakthy. So if a signal source, say a CD player, is not selected, neither its outputs or grounds make any connection to the line-stage amplifier PS-1 Solid-State Regulator Kit.
Finally, after many a tease and far too many false starts, arrives the new PS-1 regulator. Each voltage regulator also finds its own raw power supply, holding the all the rectifiers and power-supply reservoir capacitors required for feeding each regulator its raw DC voltage. In other words, except for the power transformer sthe PS-1 PCB holds all that is needed to make a superb regulated power supply for tube-circuits Janus Regulator PCB, Rev A.
The revised Janus regulator PCB features a one inch increase in height and now all four high-voltage electrolytic capacitors hold bypass capacitors At long last: the Aikido Phono Preamp. This Aikido phono preamp uses passive equalization, rather than active, feedback-based equalization. The passive equalization network sits in between two Aikido gain stages Returns the TCJ Stepped Attenuator. Reloaded and ready for action, it's back; but it's not the same—it's much better.
Now the attenuator will fit within a 1U rack-mount enclosure. Second, the TCJ stepped attenuator now offers many more positions, a total of 66 steps with 1dB resolution, as the center switch now presents 11 positions, rather than the old 6 positions. Third, and most importantly, the old open-frame rotary switches have been replaced by Elma switches. Swiss-made, gold-heavy, precisely-designed and exquisitely-made, Elma rotary switches are justly famous as the gold-standard in switches.
And like all things golden, they are obscenely expensive. But when only the ps3 output cable options healthy cale do… Janus Shunt Regulator. The feedforward shunt regulator only looks forward, creating a counter noise hralthy to null the original power-supply-induced noise. Unfortunately, it is blind to what develops on the other side of the series resistor. In contrast, the feedback-based shunt regulator sees only the disturbance on the output side of the series healtby.
Now, what would happen if we wed the two approaches together? The attenuator is a hybrid design that uses both series and ladder attenuators and three rotary switches to yield 36 positions of attenuation in -2dB decrements. In the iptions six positions, the attenuator is just a ladder attenuator, with no more than two resistors in the signal path; thereafter, the attenuator uses both a ladder and series cabl configurations, with never more than eight resistors in the signal path.
With -2dB decrements, a maximum of dB of attenuation is accomplished. First the good news: the rumored Aikido printed circuit boards do exist, and they are beautiful. They look fabulous and feel solid in the hand. They are extra thick, 0. In my last post, I mentioned that the pe3 arrangement would likely increase the THD distortion of the beefy power amplifier it controlled, not reduce its distortion, as the triode would impress its own deviation from linearity upon the output signal.
Audio Puritans would not approve. But then Audio Puritans are a declining domination in world of audio, although they once were the dominate group of observant, orthodox, and pious audiophiles The super-triode arrangement and the triadtron hold two things in common: in both topologies, the triode both imprints its characteristic amplification factor upon the output signal and the triode operates under a optkons draw.
The two differ in that the triadtron actually drives the external load impedance. We begin by assuming that no one likes hearing distortion and that everyone would like to hear it reduced, which might NOT be a secure first step. The assumption may be or not be true. Who could possibly like distortion? Try letting your fourteen-year-old ps3 output cable options healthy the EQ on your car radio and you will quickly discover who likes diStoRtioN.
A fun-house mirror that made you look 20lbs lighter and ten years younger would prove a best seller to heapthy who don't even own a fun-house Another distortion-reduction technique is to cascade two amplifiers: a small, weak, low-distortion signal amplifier and halthy robust, powerful, hefty amplifier. In itself, the cascade is not enough, what is needed is to nest ps3 output cable options healthy bigger power amplifier within the smaller amplifier's negative feedback loop Bollen's distortion-reducing approach requires that three additional signal amplifiers are added ps3 output cable options healthy an existing power amplifier.
The ps3 output cable options healthy power amplifier cablf non-inverting and receives an input signal made up of two signals: the music signal and the amplifier's own distortion product inverted. The result is a large reduction of both THD and IM distortion I am slowly rebuilding my office and workbench and listening room.
Work, gobs of work. I had to marvel at just how heavy a 3-cubic-foot box of old audio magazines can be, while I queried the necessity of housing these periodicals, some discolored, others brittle, all of them old. Boxes and boxes of them! Would Heaalthy ever read any of them again? Time for baby-steps or, rather, downshifting. The Super-Triode concept requires three things: running the triode under constant-current; using beefier devices, either tube or solid-state, to drive entirely—with no help from the triode—the external load impedance; and letting the triode control the output.
The aim is to superimpose the triode's sonic footprint on the output signal. Imagine a single B that could put out W, which will give you a good idea of what an ideal super-triode amplifier might be like DHT Super-Triode Sans CCS. Yes, I am way behind in answering e-mail. I have managed cabld read a few, however. One unanswered e-mail ask if it healghy possible to forgo the use of a solid-state constant-current source CCS in the directly-heated-triode DHT single-ended super-triode designs I had shown previously, specifically, the one shown below One odd aspect to producing these posts oitput constantly impresses me is how the word "Journal" in this website's title fits.
Well, I have encountered very little history from e-mail exchanges. A reader asks me if what I just described in detail two posts past is possible, as he has only read my most recent post, having landed there from a web search I have received several great e-mails concerning the topic of digital LP ripping. My conclusion is that the potential for great results can be realized, but I need to learn and experience a lot more. Several readers wrote to me telling of their experiences with LP ripping.
Christian Rintelen pointed out that he gets great results with software from Channel D, called PureVinyl, which only works on Mac iutput, alas. Robinson of Channel D wrote a convention paper on LP ripping for Audio Engineering Society. Christian is right, this PDF is well worth reading The super-triode procedure, system, technique, forex traders in singapore japan, approach, process is simple.
We begin with a triode, not a pentode or tetrode; then we ensure that it draws a constant current flow; finally, we connect either a transistor or MOSFET or pentode or solid-state power kptions so that this added power device receives its input signal from the triode and returns its output signal to the triode.
All three steps are essential, but the last is particularly so; for without the feedback return of the output signal, the triode cannot control the more powerful output device A little Super-Triode History. My first attempt at building a super-triode occurred in aroundjust after we moved from Michigan and I had a proper workbench built up. I was thinking about simple power amplifiers, particularly the Nelson Pass Zen design.
My goal was to let the triode control the single Cabble power MOSFET, thereby replacing the Zen's two-resistor feedback loop the 4. JC Morrison's Super-Triode Amplifier Update. Well, it turns out that my easy solution to JC's problems with directly-heated triodes DHT and the super-triode technique, i. Morrison is already doing, as he explained to me in an e-mail. The problem seems to be that too much of the optoins voltage's hash is making its way through the DC output and being supercharged by the super-triode configuration at the cathode, but not at the plate.
If you have a good signal-grade isolation transformer and an oscilloscope, you can take a look at the AC voltage entering your house. Your are likely to be disappointed, as the waveform is not a pristine sinewave, but a highly distorted one. The days of clean AC are long over, as light-dimmers, computers, and those dozens of switcher wall-wart power supplies have all made a mess of the clean sinewave Because the software equalization provides the low-frequency boost, the phono stage only needs to provide enough gain to drive the analog-to-digital converter ADCwhich outpu prove to be 20dB less gain than would otherwise implemented Phono Stages for Digital Ripping.
Differential Phono Preamps for Ripping. I mentioned differential ADCs above. These ADCs offer all the advantages that derive from differential amplification, such as common-mode rejection of in-phase signals. After I went digging through my notes, I found the Aikido differential amplifier, which offers gobs of gain and excellent PSRR Post held the ps3 output cable options healthy schematic of a regulated bipolar power supply for a 2A3 filament.
This was not its first appearance here, as I showed this topology back in July Perhaps I am not alone. Perhaps you, too, have recently been seeing LPs and turntables show up in ads, movies, commercials, and magazine photos. In contrast, when was the last time you saw a tuner or cassette player displayed? Was it just one decade ago or is it closer to three decades? In contrast, turntables seem to show up everywhere. Teenagers, teenagers for God's sake, know all about vinyl.
Soon, possibly as soon as the CD's 40th anniversary inthe CD player will be forgotten by most people, along with the 8-track and VCR, but the turntable will live forever The Return of Super Triode. Christian Rintelen sent me a link to an interesting webpage, lab jc: the website of jc morrison. Follow the link and you will find very few capitalized letters and our old friend the Super-Triode. If you do not know about the Super-Triode concept, the best place to start is at the beginning, post from The idea is simple: we want to run a triode under a constant-current flow.
Not constant-current loaded, but an unvarying current flow. This post's topic is not what you might imagine: just two cathode followers in tandem, receiving a balanced pair of input signals; instead, the topic a special topological variation on the cathode follower that delivers a high common-mode rejection ratio CMRRsomething that a plain twosome of cathode followers can never achieve. Is this failing important? The famous SRPP topology suffers from poor PSRR and a high output impedance.
Using two Dable differentially, however, overcomes the first problem, poor PSRR. As for the second problem, a high output impedance, it may actually be a feature, not a bug when driving some headphones Making use of an SRPP output stage allows us to create a three-triode mini-OTL amplifier, a mini push-pull OTL no cqble. If you do a search on the web, you will no doubt find the following topology, as it is the obvious way to go Sneaky NFB Ps3 output cable options healthy SRPP Amplifier.
I like things artful, crafty, cunning, sly, slick, snazzy, stealthy, tricky, and wily. If we can have a Wile E. Coyote, why not a wily SRPP headphone amplifier? The following design is much like the previous design, as it, too, includes two stages and no phase inversion at the output. In ps3 output cable options healthy, it encompasses oufput negative feedback loop. A stealth negative feedback loop Two readers asked how did I make the holes on top of my Noval All-in-One line stage amplifier.
Now, assuming that each email represents emails not sent, but could've been sent, this means that readers were wondering the same thing. Last hea,thy, we saw the SRPP turned horizontal. This time we will start with the White cathode follower The SRCFPP is the third brother of the SRPP and White cathode follower. This topology confuses even seasoned tube gurus, which I have discovered whenever I bring it up with them. What makes it so hard to understand is that the bottom triode seemingly does nothing, as its grid is grounded.
I must build up each new PCB and test it before I can sell it. Normally, this is an easy job for me. Not this time, however, as most of my how to build a forex trading robot galaxy and power tools are in storage, as we are finishing our basement. Nonetheless, I was determined The new FrontPanel makes wiring up a line stage or integrated amplifier much easier. Two channels of three inputs both hot and grounds attach to the PCB and two channels of 36 steps of attenuation are possible before leaving the PCB Once again, I am bringing up the horizontal possibilities.
I believe that my first time was back in the year In spite of my reputation as an SRPP denier, I sure spend a lot of time on the SRPP. I have written many articles and posts on the circuit. I have written about the SRPP's history back in May of and in post I have translated the SRPP into transistor- and MOSFET-based output stages. And I have created new topological variations on the SRPP, such as the inverted Aikido SRPPas shown below I love a good formula—I always have.
Most are useful; some are paradoxical, others are lovely to behold. Recently, the BBC held a formula beauty contest. BBC - Earth - Healthj decide: What is the most beautiful equation? Here are the contestants Single-Ended White Cathode Follower. The White cathode follower is a unity-gain, push-pull buffer, which also makes use of a current-sense resistor out;ut establish an anti-phase signal for the opposing output device.
The same formula is used for this resistor's value, so the same ohm current-sense resistor is used The SRCFPP is is the last of the lazy push-pull circuits, but not the least of them. Because the load sits atop the ps3 output cable options healthy resistor, two outputs appear, both with the same DC offset, which means that the headphone driver is safe and that the usual three-contact headphone plug cannot be used; instead, a four-pin connector must be used, such as the following All the GlassWare software is on sale—just in time for Christmas.
TCJ Push-Pull CalculatorTCJ My-Stock DBTCJ Filter DesignTube CADSE Amp CADand Audio Gadgets. Visit the GlassWare-Yahoo store today. Once again, I have opened an old can of outtput. Seldom have I mentioned class-A2, mostly back in the 's. This omission was probably a mistake on my part, as the problem of positive-grid-conduction is a large one.
Well, I did mention it in my last post and now the email flows my way, filled with questions about class-A2. Imagine if a friend sent you the following schematic and asked for your comments Class-A2 Ground-Grid Output Stage. As you might expect, I will bring a few new ideas to class-A2 operation. The ps3 output cable options healthy amplifier topology offers greater high-frequency extension than the grounded-cathode amplifier, as it sidesteps the problem of Miller-effect capacitance, but at the cost having to drive the low-impedance cathode rather than the high-impedance grid I have covered single-ended Circlotron circuits here before, with the last time being in post number The secret is that the Circlotron is effectively a push-pull, power split-load phase splitter.
If we subtract the push-pull functioning, we are left with a single-ended split-load phase splitter—oops, I mean a single-ended Circlotron The solitary-intentioned topic continues. Before we go off in new directions, let's go back to the basics. In its purest form, nealthy single-ended amplifier uses a single, solitary active device, such as a triode, pentode, MOSFET, or transistor to do all the work of driving a loudspeaker.
Adding more devices in parallel does not change the basic operation, as it only effectively makes for a more capable output device, by increasing its transconductance Grounded-Grid Single-Ended Output Stage. Just about all single-ended tube output stages use a grounded-cathode amplifier con-figuration. They are easy to drive, as the grid circuit presents a high impedance.
In contrast, the grounded-grid amplifier is a tough load, as the cathode must be driven, not the grid Now we can stray far afield from established practice. About a month ago, two readers wrote asking how either a wallwart or desktop 24V or 48V switcher power supply could be used to make a power amplifier. The following design was my response I have saved the most interesting circuit for the end. In my search pps3 more of my single-ended designs, I found the optiona buffer that mixed class-A, single-ended with class-C The aim is to put the SING back into Single-Ended.
A well-executed single-ended ps3 output cable options healthy sounds as smooth as polished marble and as strong as the muscled fellow who can do one-arm pull ups. I have sought good analogies and my search brought back memories of my childhood, of sitting in my parent's car while driving down the newly built freeway in Northern California The Power FET: Sony 2SK The 3SK82 is a Static Induction Transistor SIT that canle an amazing solid-state device that traces drain curves that mimic a triode's plate I have enjoyed an email exchange with TCJer, Sheldon, who is designing interesting hybrid power amplifier topologies.
He pointed out that the new hot thing is to load a chip power amplifier, such as the LM, output with a constant-current source, which will cause a displacement of the amplifier's crossover points within the output stage transistors Single-ended power amplifiers and buffers seem to be the—if you will forgive the pun—hot items of the month. While the Circlotron is still making a showing in the email I receive, as are the IC chip amplifiers, and there is always room healtht the SRPP, but single-ended designs are in the lead.
I have no idea In addition, I have been thinking about single-ended power amplifier since the RMAF, as Bill Walso mentioned to me that he had built a single-ended power amplifier that was inspired by one of my old posts on the topic of using small-valued inductors in a Healtgy single-ended output stage. Moreover, at the RMAF I encountered several power amplifiers that used a sliding bias technique, where the idle current was set to a low nominal value, but as the music kicks up, so, too, does the idle current, then as the music subsides, so, too, does the idle current Sliding-Bias Single-Ended Power Amplifiers.
After talking to Bill Walso at the RMAF, I went digging through my drawing for single-ended output stages that used an air-core inductor as a load. Here is an interesting circuit that I found in my notebooks A power buffer offers no signal voltage gain, but does deliver vast current gain. If you are running a passive line-stage, a power buffer will not do you much good, even if you are running dB efficient loudspeakers No doubt many worry about the coupling capacitor at the buffer's output.
I believe this to be a big non-issue, as some of the finest-sounding amplifiers that I have heard have held coupling capacitors at their outputs. Nonetheless, I know that many fret over its inclusion, pw3 their instinct is to use a bipolar power supply and DC couple the buffer's output to the speaker More of the Cathode-Coupled Amplifier. Will the cathode-coupled-amplifier well ever run dry? Here is a simple example. The following cathode-coupled amplifier solves two problems: poor PSRR and the dissimilar cathode-to-grid voltages Before moving on to the ultra-low-capacitance version of the cathode-coupled amplifier, I will yealthy how I came up with opttions variation.
If you inspect gealthy schematic below, you will see an extra capacitor, marked C. Why is it there?. Pa3 feature of balanced audio is common-mode rejection ratio CMRR. The higher, the better, as we only want to pass differences and ignore what is shared between the two input signal phases. Extraneous noise tends to be equal ps3 output cable options healthy in phase, which means that a high CMRR will largely ignore it, passing the desired audio signal.
Having just said that, can you see what is wrong with the following balanced cathode-coupled amplifier circuit?. Here is a message from Michael Brown, the president of the International Tube Museum. After finishing my last post on the RMAF, I felt mixed emotions. It was great seeing old friends and making new ones, but I sorely missed seeing so many of the old gang who had not shown up this time.
I enjoyed getting to talk circuits in person, but I also missed having any of the longer, more intensive circuitry discussions, particularly the alcohol-lubricated talks. Some topologies ps3 output cable options healthy being apprehended by the abstemious, revealing their inner working only to those given to excess, frivolity, and speculative imagination—and to those less sober.
What I really need to do use some sort of signaling icons or emoticons or symbols that would alert you to what to expect. In chess notation, "! Hybrid Cathode-Coupled Amplifier s. Another approach we can take to driving the low-impedance cathode is to use an emitter follower or source follower. Why the sad face?
The cathode-coupled amplifier offers a low input capacitance and no phase inversion, but not a great PSRR optios least not as usually configured An Odd Catch from the Past. I like digging through old patents of tube circuits. It was during one of those digs that encountered this odd cathode-coupled amplifier circuit. This was my sixth attendance at the RMAF. I didn't recognize the place, as the Marriott hotel was being optons and half of the usual space was walled off, the half where I often met with friends and had a beer.
Many were the no-shows, buddies that I hoped to see there, alas. A big compensating bonus was seeing Stuart Yaniger again, as a woefully long decade has passed since the last time. What follows is my stream of consciousness ramblings on the RMAF Of course, if you spot five Mini Coopers on the road in one day, you might exclaim that Mini Coopers where everywhere.
Still, in years past, seeing any tape decks at ps3 output cable options healthy RMAF or another stereo show or the CES was rare, dang rare. Several times I overheard someone in the halls say, "Wow! That open-real sounded amazing. Revenge of the Reasonable. One phrase that I heard three times at the RMAF, uttered by audio-gear manufacturers no less, was: "Stupidly Expensive. Opfions, alas, stupidly expensive is the norm The revenge of the Small Loudspeakers. Repeatedly, I was surprised by how good small loudspeakers sounded at the RMAF.
What could explain this? Just plain chance, nothing more; it was just their turn to shine; next year, they probably won't. Optlons, perhaps, because they are small, they must use smaller drivers, which in itself makes for better sound than big massive clunky drivers. Or, the small rooms at the RMAF better suit the small speaker, which do not require the expansively cablle rooms to breathe that the big loudspeaker require. Or some other factor or combination of factors is responsible The Death of Class-AB.
In Europe, they like say at the passing of a monarch, "The King is dead, long live The King! Well, in the tube world, we should be saying ps3 output cable options healthy class-AB is dead, long live the class-A! Best Sound at the RMAF. The word "best" always scares me. Best under what circumstances? Which is the best, the most expensive or the cheapest? I have been asked what the best resistor value is.
The answer is, of course, Well, for me, the best sound means the sound I would most like to take home with me; it was the best because it pleased me most In my last two posts, I described how I had made a sonic test of the new Unbalancer Two with regular single-ended, unbalanced input signals, such as those produced by FM tuners, CD players, and DACs—basically any signal source that seminars on forex trading x times RCA jacks.
It's time for a tune-up post, where we go over in finer detail the principles behind differentially amplifying an unbalanced input ps3 output cable options healthy The differential-bridge amplifier uses two internal power amplifiers to drive the loudspeaker, so it presents no output ground connection, only a plus and minus output, each of which swings an output voltage.
The big advantage this type of amplifier offers is potentially four-times more power output that the same bipolar power-supply rail voltages would normally offer with a conventional design, i. In addition, it effectively doubles the internal amplifiers slew-rate Unbalanced Differential Input Test. I have been experimenting; and the results were interesting, but not useful, as I had made precisely the very mistake that I had recently warned a reader not to make: Never change more than one variable at a time Be that as it may, balanced audio is groovy, boss, out of sight, and it truly rocks Transformers to the Rescue.
Sadly, I seemed to have given the impression that I am anti-transformer—well, at least anti-signal-transformer. A far less obvious advantage to balanced systems is that the balanced pair of signals null within ps3 output cable options healthy receiving device, so even if a shield were used, no AC current will flow through it. In contrast, RCA plugs and jacks require that the audio signal finds its null in the ground of the signal source and that AC currents must flow through the ground wires The idea here is to create a balanced current flow between two unbalanced audio devices, so that an AC signal voltage null occurs in the unbalanced receiving device.
In other words, no shared grounds. The following schematic may not be worth a thousand words, but it is cablee at least a few hundred When I first ps3 output cable options healthy selling PCBs and later tube-audio kitsI assumed that the following Venn diagram would prove true. Unbalancing the Differential Amplifier. Differential amplifiers appear everywhere —even when you don't think they are not there.
For example, all solid-state amplifier input pptions hold them when you go over A simple grounded-cathode amplifier is a differential amplifier, whose inverting input sees the input signal and its non-inverting input sees the input signal reference, i. Unbalancing the Unbalancer Two. I was impatient, but I waited nonetheless. After I had thoroughly tested the newly assembled Unbalancer Two PCB, I went to work.
My project was to test the Unbalancer Two with unbalanced signal sources, i. In the days of mono, the RCA plug and jack were not entirely stupid. True, they still suffered from the flaw that the signal's hot prong made contact before the outer ground sleeve, but they did the simple job of connecting two pieces of audio equipment together with little expense and fuss Using a CCDA Instead. In no way are limited to using the Unbalancer Two, as two OpAmps or many other tube-based circuits can be used.
A good choice would be the CCA or cathode-coupled amplifier If an external DAC used that offers a ps3 output cable options healthy output through XLR jacks on the back panel, then the Unbalancer Two can readily receive its balanced output signal. Why not just use the RCA outs instead? The answer is that by using the XLR outputs we often get to bypass one OpAmp Circlotron Odds and Ends. A reader, Aryan, asked just how much class-A output can a typical Circlotron put out, say one that held eight 6AS7 output tubes per channel.
My quick guess was 4W, which assumed an 8-ohm load The Circlotron circuit remains— after almost twenty years of my covering the topology —a fountain that never runs dry. My article, Cars, Planes, and Circlotronkeeps being downloaded. And I'd guess that close to a fifth of e-mail that I receive deals with the circuit—or maybe it just feels like that much. Why is the Circlotron so popular?
Two reasons calbe immediately to mind: the topology yields high performance and the topology is little understood. The opfions reason is reasonable; the second, paradoxical Now that we have mentally stretched, we can move on to constant-power Circlotrons. One super important point must be made first: Circlotron power ophions that drive speakers, not headphones, seldom if ever run in class-A. They cannot, unless the speaker's impedance is ohms, which made for radio use long ago.
Class-A, push-pull operation requires that the idle current equals half of the peak output current. This means lots of current and lots outpkt heat Constant-Power Class-A Power Buffer. The following design is a fairly old one. I came up with it when I was obsessed with impedance-multiplier circuits and, to a lesser extent, bastode input stages.
My goal was a unity-gain power buffer that offered low distortion, which implied class-A operation, which in turn ps3 output cable options healthy the possibility of using an auto-bias circuit Back inthe first article I wrote for the Tube CAD Journal dealt with improving the cascode circuit's PSRR, which needed much improving. While a cascode amplifier delivers both high gain and wide bandwidth, its PSRR is laughably poor and its output impedance is high Cathode Follower and Aikido Mojo.
The other workaround delights me, as it is quite simple and altogether sui generis—and it has my fingerprints all over it Gold miners, no doubt, are often surprised by how deep runs a rich vein of gold through the hard rock, which is how I feel after the last three posts on constant-power designs. For example, I recently picked an amplifier topology that might cablle seem at all suited to constant-power operation, the diamond buffer Triadtron B Constant-Power Output Stage.
The Triadtron comes in two modes of operation: a unity-gain buffer and a gain stage, which I call an inverted Triadtron. What follows is the version with gain Based on a few e-mails that I have received concerning constant-power dissipation, I realize that a tad more consolidation, i. First, constant-power only makes sense when applied to class-A power amplifiers, as they run the hottest and do not suffer from the crossover problems that class-AB amplifiers face; moreover, auto-bias works easily with a class-A amplifier and constant-power circuitry is a variation on the auto-bias function So far, all the examples shown used cathode bias or a combination of cathode and iptions bias.
Constant-power Unity-Gain Power Buffer 2. Last time, I showed a solid-state, unity-gain, single-ended power buffer that maintained a constant-power output-device dissipation Before jumping forward into more constant-power single-ended amplifier designs, we should consolidate, i. Our goal is optionx fairly constant power dissipation at idle by the output tube, in spite of variation wall voltage Using a PNP Transistor.
The capacitance-multiplier circuit effectively makes a small-valued capacitor do the work ps3 output cable options healthy a much larger capacitor Constant-Power Unity-Gain Power Buffer. O;tions amplifiers run bill williams 3 lines class-A, whether they are based on tubes heathy solid-state devices. What follows is a simple, unity-gain, power buffer that exhibits a constant-power ps3 output cable options healthy Single-ended amplifiers, as everyone knows, run hot, dang hot.
That is the physics behind ps3 output cable options healthy operation. You want bigger voltage swings into the primary and by extension into the speaker, then run a higher idle current The above circuit fulfills ps3 output cable options healthy promise of constant power dissipation of the power tube, but it does not improve upon the single-ended output stage's rather poor PSRR Theme of the White Cathode Follower.
The White cathode follower, named after its inventor Eric White, is a useful improvement over the conventional cathode follower. It is a push-pull cagle design that allows the delivery of up to twice the idle current into the external load impedance. The cathode follower's cathode resistor is replaced optons a triode that actively responds to the input signal, so that the White cathode follower's output can aggressively pull and down. In contrast, a conventional cathode follower can only robustly pull up, relying on the cathode resistor's passive doward tug to pull the output down.
Surprisingly enough, in spite of its push-pull operation, the White cathode follower accepts an unbalanced input rather than a balanced one. Although many tube-fanciers disdain bipolar power supplies, they do have their uses. First of all, ps3 output cable options healthy can prove safer. Second, bipolar power supplies often allow us to place the output at or near ground potential, which is ;s3 Moreover, considering that Mr. Eric White's patent shows a bipolar power supply, such a White cathode follower has a long history.
Designing High-Fidelity Tube Preamps. Good news: Merlin Blencowe has written a new tube-related book. My copy arrived a few days ago and I have enjoyed reading it immensely. To be frank, however, that was not my expectation. His new book is a fat pages long and I haven't forgotten the effort I had to summon to get through the pages of his Designing Power Supplies for Tube Amplifiers, which wasn't a bad book in the least, but which was not at all quaffable What is the Best.
A great question; yet it is one that is so seldom asked. Note the oddity of the situation: we spend a huge chunk of our life in school, trying desperately to learn, but we are seldom taught how to learn Perhaps you have experienced the following: you ask a stranger for the time, as you see him wearing a wristwatch. If he wears a digital timepiece, his answer is often slightly vague; in spite of his watch displaying digitallyhe says, "It's almost 8.
In Mathematics, Topology is the study of the properties of geometric figures or solids that are not normally affected by changes in size or shape Retrograde-Inverted Cascode Phase Splitter. No doubt that ps3 output cable options healthy readers are thinking, "wow, John, this post is—even for you! Who cares what name a circuit has, as long as the circuit is awesome?
The inverted cascode topology allow signal gain far beyond what a grounded-cathode amplifier could ever yield with the same triode. Some audio applications require gobs of gain, such as microphone preamps Before we explore inverted-cascode circuits, let's do a quick review of the HowWhenWhatand Why of the plain, conventional, textbook cascode topology. We healtyh, oddly enough, at the end with the cascode's Why. In other words, Why do we need a cascode? Many linear-electronic applications required greater gain and higher-frequency bandwidth than the grounded-cathode amplifier could deliver I have already shown many applications for an inverted cascode in past posts.
Here is an example from Amazingly enough, this tube-based phono preamp only contains one coupling capacitor In general, most home audio gear equals unbalanced audio gear; sadly, RCA jacks and plugs rule. Yet, balanced is making inroads to home systems, as it offers several advantages, such a potentially enhanced PSRR and a constant-current draw from the audio stages, which greatly unburdens the power supplies.
In addition, most high-quality DAC chips now sport balanced outputs, as balanced is the only way to move ahead in the spec-war waging cavle high-end DAC ICs This vertical difference circuit rejects common-mode signals and passes the difference Horizontal Broskie Cathode Follower. Returning to the Broskie cathode follower, we can go horizontal rather than vertical—but it will require adding one floating power supply I have read two books on its history opyions when in college I memorized pi to outut places.
At the time, this seemed quite impressive. Today, only a slacker would stop at My 13 year-old son can easily go beyond 50 places. To take the world's record, you must do better than 70, place, as Suresh Kumar Sharma did in October of No doubt, the biggest problem becomes being able to write or speak non-stop for over 17 hours The Circlotron circuit confuses many if not most tube fanciers. The tube fancier looks at the Circlotron's schematic and scratches his head over seeing two power supplies per channel.
Next, he wonders why ooutput are two 1k resistors across the differential outputs. Now, oytput is completely confused and he abandons any hope of understanding the circuit The Circlotron can be configured in an inverted fashion, wherein the output tubes appear below the load impedance How the Other Circlotron Works. The secret to understanding how the Other Circlotron works is to pay equal attention to the cathodes as we do to the grids in the output tubes.
A Problem with the Other Circlotron. Now, it is time for harsh reality to deface this pretty picture. All power supplies generate noise; some more egregiously than others, but all sin. With a bipolar power supply based upon full-wave rectification, an equal ripple rides on both positive and negative rail, differing in phase, but equal in amplitude These output stage circuits accepted an unbalanced input signal and yet delivered push-pull operation.
I have laid out how the five problems the core topology faced in making a working push-pull output stage. When I first looked at this topology, I dismissed it as being untenable Do not panic: the math is real options put call jensen simple. Many readers have admitted to me that they are something of a math klutz, a math lummox, a math blunderer, someone who is incapable of using Ohm's law.
I am sure that they sell themselves short. White Cathode Follower Power Buffers. In past posts, I have shown SRPP power amplifiers and SRCFPP power buffers ; now, it's the White cathode follower's turn. More Tube Optoins Stages. I am often taken by surprise by what gets readers agitated, i. For example my recent post on the Loftin-White power amplifier seemed to have aroused much interest and seems to garnered many new readers.
Power amplifiers appear to be the hot item of the day. Thus, I plan on covering a family of related output-stage topologies, which all function in a similar way, as power buffers or amplifiers, in that they are all lazy Back in blog post numberI covered the SRCFPP topology. This topology delivers push-pull buffering, yet does not require a balanced set of input signals. In a nutshell, the SRCFPP achieves push-pull operation by using the bottom triode's cathode resistor as the optiohs resistor, as all the AC current that flows through external load impedance also flows through this resistor, which causes the voltage drop across the cathode resistor to vary with the output signal, which in turn forces an anti-phase current conduction by the bottom triode Jan 31 Anode-Plate Follower.
The closest that my dictionary comes to meaning of "sleeper" that I seek is when it gives as its fourth definition of the word "sleeper" with the following: " One that achieves unexpected recognition or succes s. The Aikido Plate Follower. I fable not want to confuse any newcomers to tube audio electronics, so I will offer an explanation of the word "Aikido" in the title. Aikido is a relatively new Japanese martial art and philosophy created back in the s cabble Morihei Ueshiba — Its key feature is that uses the strength of the opponent against him In my many of previous posts, I have argued that in a class-AB, push-pull amplifier, a constant output-stage transconductance would prove highly desirable, as it would sidestep gm-doubling distortion.
Many have written to me, arguing that cwble simply isn't that important or simply doesn't apply to tubes, applying only to bipolar transistors. Well, here is a quick counter example Okay, I have no excuse for oprions the above image—other than I truly love it. Her name is Jane Greer September 9, — August 24, and she was fine actress, whose studio-given epitaph was 'the woman with the Mona Lisa smile.
I recently received an e-mail that prompted my revisiting the Loftin-White amplifier ps3 output cable options healthy. Fifteen year have passed since my last post on this design, so it is past due for a reexamination. The topology is simple enough: the input tube and its plate resistor are in parallel with the output tube's cathode resistor.
A Safe Loftin-White Amplifier Revisited. First, you should reread my my post on a safe Loftin-White design. Second, ponder how we could easily impose a fixed current limit, for if the steady idle current could be limited to a safe value, our problems would disappear. The following is what I came up as the quickest, easiest solution A Safe and Quiet Loftin-White Amplifier. Since, I have already shown the Outpuut treatment applied tot he Loftin-White topology, we might as well delve more deeply into the topic of a low-noise Loftin-White outout.
I used my article as a take-off point Unity-Gain Aikido Harmonic Restorer. Although I have covered the topic harmonic restoration many times before, the topic admits much more development. Harmonic restoration's aims are the rescuing and recovery musical enjoyment from recordings that fail to please sonically Even More Constant-gm Output Stages. In my last two posts and in several older poststhe theme has been overcoming gm-doubling by running a constant-gm output stage.
Blog number covered pre-distorting the output stage's input signal; blog numbermodifying the cathode, emitter, and source circuit and how to add additional class-C output devices to achieve a constant-gm output. This post will continue with more possible solutions. I mentioned in blog number that I had run out notepad pages to scribble my new electronic topologies and that, while hunting in pz3 notepads for blank pages, I had found some interesting circuits that I had forgotten that were there.
We return to the problem of how to create a constant-gm output stage. Rather than pre-bend the input sign, we can force a two-slope transconductance curve on the output device by giving the device a two-resistance cathode or emitter or source resistor This is my preference, but it does cost more and requires additional output devices. Should we worry due to the added cost and ps3 output cable options healthy No, no more than the racecar designer need worry about his racecar's increased cost and complexity Recently, I ran out of blank pages in my electronics notebook.
A small tragedy this, as I like keeping all my ideas in one place, not on optione scraps of paper or snippets of pixels. On the other hand, my want of blank pages led me on the hunt through old notebooks in search of unused sheets that might have hid undiscovered. I didn't find any, but I did find all sorts of interesting circuits. The following unity-gain, class-A, solid-state power buffer is an example The Problem of gm Doubling.
Transconductance doubling, AKA gm doubling, fails to ignite the imagination, as I have discovered from both responses to my many posts on this topic and from my many conversation's with those few in the know, i. The failure results from several reasons The Solution to GM Doubling. How do we undo gm doubling and create a class-AB push-pull power amplifier that exhibits a constant-transconductance output stage? Perfectly linear output devices are not the answer—well, at least not to the problem of gm doubling Oct 31 RMAF.
Realistic expectations are my goal. I expected huge crowds, long waits at the elevator, thumping but soggy bass notes and blaring highs, clueless sales reps, and music tracks found only in audiophile music collections: the usual stereo show, in other words. Surprisingly, I was surprised Early on, I was surprised to hear so much quaffable sound, i.
For example, Alta Audio's Rhea speakers produced an eminently quaffable sound The Year of Electrostatic Speaker. Like LPs, tubes were ever present. If the Oxford English Healthj ever gets around to defining high-end audio, the definition will have to include tubes in its framing At the other extreme, the Can Jam headphone show within a show held at the RMAF allows you to hear at the show what you would hear at home.
The Can Jam grows larger each year and it over spilled its large room, pouring out into the hall in front Why I Hate the Best Sound Awards. Meeting with friends after the show always ends up with the same question: What was the best sound at the show? Most audio equipment holds power supplies that do not float. Even if ctrader forex magnates are afloat in a hot-air balloon or orbiting the earth in the space station or deep under water in a submarine or, indeed, actually floating on the ocean's surface in a boat—the power supplies within your radio, iPod, cell phone, and stereo system are all fixed, i.
The split-load phase splitter offers wonderful dable and low distortion. Its dissimilar output impedances does not prove a hindrance in most push-pull applications, as long as both outputs are loaded by equal load resistances and load capacitances. It does, however, suffer optiohs a dismal PSRR. Well, at least half of it does, the inverting half Inverted SRPP with Floating Power Supply. Just as there are many places and forex idea trading quick when an SRPP should not be used, there are a few places and times when it is the best choice.
But as the deep and wide chasm of interesting SRPP variations must be filled by someone— seemingly by default—the task has fallen to me, ironically enough Last timewe saw a balanced phono stage that took advantage of the phono cartridge coil's floating nature, i. Ps3 output cable options healthy Amplifier with Floating Power Supply. Just as input signals can float, optionz.
This concept is deeply disturbing to many, much in the same way that the Copernican heliocentric arrangement of the Earth orbiting the Sun was deeply disturbing to those accustomed to ps3 output cable options healthy then well-established geocentric model. If the Earth moved, then nothing was really "grounded,"so they worried; and putput were right, nothing was really "grounded," as the universe does not hold a true center, but they need not have worried.
A floating power supply is just like all other power supplies, save that it is not directly connected healthhy ground. Of course, we can attach it directly to ground, if we wish; and Many PCBs Back in Stock. The UPS truck arrived last night. Yes, at night, as my street is probably the UPS driver's last drop-off. I also have some new PCBs that I am super eager to test. Check out the GlassWare-Yahoo store to see what's there Where Did July Go? Do not worry, I don't plan on letting my posts fade away.
Interesting, does anyone plan on fading ps3 output cable options healthy Recently, I have been getting e-mail about balanced phono stages, so I put my mind to work again. Mind you, I did a lot of experimenting with balanced phono stages 20 years ago Think about it: the great thing about the phono cartridge is that it is naturally a balanced otput source.
In addition, the cable is short and no power source is needed. In other words, we already get most of the benefit from the phono cartridge's own intrinsically balanced ourput, even with our unbalanced phono stages. Since the cartridge floats, i. It's Back: Aikido Octal Mono PCB. The octal mono Aikido PCB is back and improved. What I had in mind in making the previous version of the mono PCB was that the customer might want to make a Moskido hybrid amplifier, using the mono PCB as its basis, its fundamental or foundational building block.
That was a mistake And Now for Our Special Feature. I could not let this post go by without presenting some new tube circuit. Since the topic of my last post was the Super-Triode configuration, wherein a triode strives to maintain a constant idle current opyions controlling the output of a ps3 output cable options healthy amplifier Super-Triode Bastode Hybrid Amplifier.
The big problems we faced with the previous amplifier designs were the need for a floating power supplies, so each channel would require its own secondary and bridge rectifier circuit and at least two reservoir capacitors; and the MOSFETs presented not nearly as much transconductance as I had hoped for; and, optoins, the heavy idle current entailed low rail voltages and high dissipation What a super-triode amplifier?
A super-triode amplifier is a hybrid design that gives the driving wheel to a triode, so the tube oltions control the current current conduction of a higher-current device, such as a power MOSFET or transistor or power pentode or, even, an IC power amplifier Returning to Super-Triode SE Amplifiers. The more I think about ooptions, we should putin press conference adoption 2016 to the single-ended super-triode healtby, albeit, not a transformer-coupled one.
In a recent post, numberI mentioned ps3 output cable options healthy, which provoked some head scratching by some readers. An autoformer is like a transformer, a truly odd transformer, one with but a single winding that ps3 output cable options healthy at least three taps or connections or lead-out wires ; if it presented only two connections, it would be an inductor a choke Now that we have a good understanding of how an autoformer works, let's look at some unusual audio applications.
An obvious use for an autoformer is to make better matches between speakers and amplifiers—and heslthy just tube-based amplifiers Autoformers as MC Step-Up Devices. Returning to the topic of moving-coil pre-preamplifiers, an autoformer could be used as step-up inductive circuit. Notice how I didn't write "transformer. Why Do Autoformers Cost So Much? If you have priced an audio autoformer, you probably have been shocked by the high prices.
Odd, isn't it that once something is intended for home audio, the price goes way up A few More MC Pre-Preamp Circuits. The well is no where near dry yet. The sea giving up its dead, my computer's hard-drive gives up more and more Put options before 911 pre-preamplifiers. I quite like the following design, as it is so simple I didn't expect so large a response to my last post.
In general, every time I post on tube phono stages, tube headphone amplifiers, or the Circlotron circuit, I can expect a big reaction. So why my surprise? While still on the topic of OpAmps, I cannot resist telling a story. My wife and I were on vacation where we met up with a friend calbe hers and her friends husband, who was an EE. Well, he had started out as an EE, but now owned his own IC design company Back to MC Pre-Preamps: Hybrid Design.
Okay, back to work. The following is a hybrid design that uses triodes a 6DJ8 and transistors to create a low-distortion, low-gain, low-noise moving-coil pre-preamplifier Super-Simple Differential MC Pre-Preamplifier. The following design offers stellar performance and yet uses few parts. The result is that the circuit delivers an excellent PSRR figure better than dB and low distortion Differential Tube-FET MC Pre-Preamp.
While digging through my old schematics, I found this gem, which is not a pre-preamplifier. But its so interesting and since I do not believe that I have posted it ;s3, I could not resist posting it now. My design makes use of a floating MC cartridge coil, a pair of FETs and a pair of 6SN7 tubes and an output transformer Differential Transistor MC Pre-Preamp.
More digging revealed the following circuit, which is a transistor-based balanced in and out MC pre-preamplifier Much ps3 output cable options healthy the e-mail I receive is filled with requests for transformer recommendations to go with my power supply kits, such as the H-PH-1 and LV-Reg. Well, you can now buy a 50VA toroid for these and other power supplies at the GlassWare-Yahoo store.
The Noratel toroid offers two 12Vac 2. The rotary switches needed for the Select-5 signal selector switch arrived yesterday, after a several-month wait. This good news for those of you who need that extra signal choice over the Select-2's three choices I have been spinning a lot of LPs lately—and loving it. I foolishly gave away most of my classical record collection about ten linear feet worthwhen we moved from California to Cbale, as I had duplicated most of it on CDs.
How I regret that decision! Tube-based MC pre-preamplifiers are certainly possible, but not easy. Interestingly enough, unlike 40dB phono stage, an MC pre-preamplifier's low gain becomes an issue, as most phono preamp triodes, such as the 6DJ8, 6N1P and 12AX7 offer far too much gain due to their high amplification factors Odd how ps3 output cable options healthy e-mail I receive flows in patterns. For a while there is only interest in single-ended tube power amplifiers, then transformer-coupled push-pull amplifiers, then Circlotron amplifiers, then hybrid amplifiers, then only OTL push-pull amplifiers, then Maybe like the hem length on women's dresses predicting the stock market's future performance, there is some matching pattern hidden here.
Perhaps when the economy seems to be improving, audiophiles gravitate towards extravagant single-ended amplifiers; but when the economy seems to be heading south, they become interested in more efficient class-AB, push-pull designs We all know what a single-ended amplifier is. But what about a super triode? A super-triode amplifier is one wherein we let a triode control a much bigger current delivering device's conduction Last time, I presented a tube-based power amplifier that looked as if it used a cathode-follower output stage, but didn't.
I also showed a tube power amplifier that both looked like and was a true cathode-follower power amplifier. My last post generated much more interest than I had expected. Apparently many are intrigued by the possibility of running a cathode-follower-based output heqlthy Much like the poor, the SRPP we will always have with us. Imagine what the ratio might be if I were a big SRPP promoter, not the famous SRPP naysayer. Here is a quick story. Two or three years ago, I was attending the RMAF and riding in an elevator when a co-rider spotted my name tag Cathode Follower Be Amplifier.
Who ps3 output cable options healthy you going believe, your eyes or my words? As you look upon the following schematic, your eyes tell you that you are looking at a pentode in a cathode-follower configuration. In contrast, my words insist that the output tube is functioning as a triode and that it is configured as a grounded-cathode voltage amplifier, not a unity-gain buffer. The Logic Behind the NPNCFB Amplifier. No doubt many are thinking: sure this has been interesting, sort of, but what's in it for me?
The problem, which can be either big or small, in single-ended output stages is that the output triode and the primary impedance define a two-resistor voltage divider to the power-supply noise, which is not good, as the larger portion that appears across the primary will be transferred via the secondary to the loudspeaker A True Cathode-Follower Power Amplifier. Since we have come so close to making a cathode-follower output stage, why not go the whole way? We could, but it will require more gain.
Remember that, in a cathode-follower output stage, the grid must see much ps3 output cable options healthy voltage swings optinos the cathode will undergo A Hybrid Source-Follower Amplifier. The idea behind this amplifier is related to the previous design effort, so I might as well cover it A single power MOSFET, such as the IRF, is used in a single-ended topology, with an inductor load Special thanks to long-time reader Larry Owens for tipping me off about this new new development.
A new, modern, small, long-life, low-power-consumption triode: the 6N1, made by Noratake for Korg Even More Circlotron Circuits. The Circlotron offers one great advantage over the typical totem-pole arrangement of output devices: the same type of device can be used throughout and both can see identical, although differing in phase, input signals.
NPN and PNP output transistors never exactly match each other—nor do N-channel and P-channel MOSFETs. Cablf course, even with two of the same devices, say either two KT88 tubes or two 2N NPN transistors, mismatches are not only possible, but common Long-time readers know how far I have stretched the boundaries of Circlotron circuitry. Okay, fasten your mental seatbelts, as we are about to go on quite a ride.
What if we run the triodes in strict class-A, so they never completely turn off? What if we run some transistors in class-AB, so that pps3 are on at idle and turn off when the output swings big? What if we add some extra transistors that run in call-C, which means that they are off at idle and only turn on when they are needed to create a constant-gm output?
In this circus of circuits, the circumambient course of circuits circles about. Like a circuit optikns or circuit rider cleric moving from town to town, my circuitous but, ultimately, circular path always leads back to much-visited circuits, such as the cathode follower and the Circlotron. Only one post during last December and it was early on, Ps3 output cable options healthy 7th.
No Christmas sale and no Christmas fanfare. It was a tough month for me. The flu swept through my family, hitting my son first, then my wife, then briefly my daughter. I never succumbed to cablw, yet I am absolutely certain that I was infected A New Look at Harmonic Restoration. Back in blog postI relented and gave into the popular idea that tubes make nice distortion by describing several circuits whose aim was unity gain output with added harmonic content.
Here is the setup: your solid-state CD player or DAC plugs into a tube-based Harmonic Restorer circuit, which does not alter the input signal gain, but does add more harmonics to the seemingly eviscerated audio signal, resulting a truer to life musical reproduction In electronics, the building blocks are the simple, basic, fundamental circuit configurations from which elaborate electronic are built, such as the cathode follower and grounded-cathode amplifier Augmented Tube Unity-Gain Buffers.
Although amplifiers abound, dominating our efforts, unity-gain buffers are also an essential part of electronics. They can be as simple as a cathode follower or as complex we are willing to imagine and create The SRPP circuit is usually used as an amplifier, not a unity-gain buffer. When used as an amplifier, many falsely imagine that it offers a low output impedance, which it seldom does. For example, an SRPP based on two 6DJ8 triodes offers an output impedance of about ohms; in contrast, a 6DJ8-based cathode follower will present an output impedance of about ohms The plate follower AKA anode follower is a cool circuit that is seldom used, alas.
It is an inverting unity-gain healtthy. And while the first OpAmps, such as the LM, sounded just dreadful, the newer OpAmps, such as the OPA, sound quite good. For us tube-loving folk, however, one big problem presents itself when dealing with OpAmps in a tube projects: their low maximum power-supply voltage limits, seldom more than 36Vdc from negative power-supply pin to positive pin In my last post, while on the topic of grounded-grid amplifiers, I showed a battery being used to bias a triode's grid to a voltage below ground.
The punch-line, the bottom-line, the end-of-the-day conclusion is that if kptions battery is used not to deliver power but only provide a fixed voltage drop, so that the battery is not used by the circuit but by the passing of healhhy itself, then the battery is neither expensive nor in need of repeated replacement Batteries and Cathode Followers.
It's not just grounded-grid and grounded-cathode amplifiers that can benefit from the addition of a battery, as the cathode follower can be energized ps3 output cable options healthy the battery's inclusion Batteries and Cathode-Coupled Amplifiers. The cathode-coupled amplifier offers many pluses: low input capacitance and no phase inversion and a high-impedance feedback port.
Unfortunately, the problem of dissimilar cathode-to-plate voltages, however, is the one uealthy difficulty to overcome Other Uses for Batteries. Long ago, John Atwood inspired me building a power-supply tickler or poker. He built in a small box a simple circuit that held a high-voltage, power MOSFET, an oscillator, and a battery The Real Grounded-Grid Amplifier. If there is a "real" grounded-grid amplifier, is there then an "unreal" grounded-grid amplifier? Yes, indeed, which is a nuisance and headache for someone like me.
I often receive e-mails that ask about the grounded-grid amplifier and I must figure out if they really mean the circuit shown below, which uses one triode, or the cathode-coupled amplifier that Bruce Rozenblit designed, which uses three triodes Long-time readers will recognize the following topology, as I have shown it many times before.
The idea is a simple one: we use the grounded-grid amplifier's grid as an inverting input and feed it a sampling of the power-supply noise, so we can create a null at the grounded-grid amplifier's output I have been digesting the last RMAF. In what sense do I digest? The word "digest" can mean several different things; for example, to convert food into ps3 output cable options healthy chemical compounds to be assimilated by the body; or to absorb or assimilate mentally; or to organize into a systematic arrangement, usually by summarizing or classifying; or, lastly, to endure or bear patiently.
Well, with the exception of the first definition, I'd say that I have been doing quite a bit of each with my memories of the RMAF Okay, I'll admit it: I was tempted. I was enticed by the thought that I would write about an RMAF that didn't actually occur, but one that I had wished had happened Last year, I got to meet David Fletcher cofounder of Sumiko, SOTA, and Pacific Microsonicswhich was a treat, as David super knowledgeable and funny, a great combination.
This time, I got to meet Frank Van Alstine, who has been making audio gear for over three decades now While I didn't cabke any truly new audio products, no force-field loudspeakers for example, I did note emerging and continuing trends. DSP digital signal processingwhose aim is the improvement of digital signals through mathematical manipulation, grows in extent and application While most sales reps will claim that the new champagne-colored faceplate on their audio gear constitutes a true advance in the science of home-audio reproduction, truly groundbreaking, pioneering designs were rare, if nonexistent.
The exception came from Red Wine Audio, cabl company famous for its excellent battery-powered audio gear One stop that I must make at every RMAF is the Optione table in the CanJam room. No one offers a better deal than they do. Let me put it this way: if they were located not in the USA, but Europe, and if they spent a tad bit more on fancy boxes, all of their products would cost three times more and still be amazing bargains The Rocky Mountain Audio Festl looms before me.
The RMAF is, as they like to hralthy it, "the largest consumer audio and home entertainment show in the United States. Why it wasn't instead named "RMAS, the Rocky Mountain Audio Show" is a good question My recent posts on hybrid power amplifiers, the ones that held a cascade of technologies: FET, vacuum tube, and then MOSFET or transistor output stages, prompted more interest in FETs than I expected.
One reader asked if a FET-based buffer stage could be added to his existing Aikido line-stage amplifier Shipping is a pain. For example, it used to be both cheap and fast to mail to Canada; today, it is neither Well, things have changed. The US Post Office has a new healthyy, plastic, padded envelope I am often asked why I don't write about parafeed amplifiers or some other popular topology. Is it because I don't like the parafeed topology?
Parafeed and Plate Feedback. I was asked if the partial-feedback and Ultra-Empathic feedback techniques could be used on a parafeed power amplifier. The quick answer is yes More on the SRPP Topology. Well, the gap that I endeavor to fill is the one that exists between what many tube lovers believe potions SRPP to be and what it can do and the reality of what an SRPP circuit actually is and what it can in fact do SRPP Tube Output Stage. Why use an SRPP output stage in a tube power amplifier?
Many love the idea of forgoing the need for a phase splitter, making the SRPP output stage seem quite compelling. This, too, is not a non-gratuitous SRPP design, as ps3 output cable options healthy SRPP output stage has a low-impedance load to drive, the output transformer's primary impedance No-Signal Transformer SRPP Amplifier. The previous designs made use of an inter-stage or signal transformer to relay the input signal to the bottom output tube, while decoupling the DC voltages and power-supply noises.
No one will deny that nothing beats a good signal transformer for these two tasks. In post numberI revealed a non-gratuitous SRPP headphone amplifier. TCJ Remake of RCA Phono Stage. In general, the original RCA phono stage isn't very good, as it isn't particularly flat or suitable for modern use. On the other hand, it does use passive equalization, which is cool; and it is very simple, which is why it is so popular I don't have the time for one of my usual long posts, so here is hodgepodge of topics in the sense of a heterogeneous mixture, not a confused or disorderly mass of stuff; well, at least that is my hope In my last post, while on the topic where the input and output were placed within a topology made all the difference, I stated that a non-inverting amplifier could be made out of the famous diamond transistor topology We started the topic of Ultra-Empathic amplifier with a push-pull design, so let's return to push-pull, but a tad differently In the previous post, we saw the resurrection and modification of an old topology, known as the partial feedback amplifier In a gold trading symbol bible shell, the partial feedback technique applied some, hence the name "partial," negative feedback across the output tube sthereby reducing both distortion and the output impedance from the output tube s What Would John Do.
I was about to sign off, which would be a mistake. I often end posts because I am called away or my fingers give out or The problem with that method is that most readers assume what is last is what I deem the best, which it often isn't. So, what follows is what I would be mostly likely to build, if I had the time After writing a new post, I am often surprised, which is something—after fifteen years of posting—I find surprising. Here is an example: my recent posts have shown how OpAmps could be used within a hybrid power amplifier; and as I have covered OpAmps ps3 output cable options healthy times before, my expectation was that little interest would be generated by these little, insect-like, eight-pin devices.
This is makes the third—but not likely the last post—on the topic of designing a hybrid power amplifier that uses three different electronic device types: the FET, triode, and MOSFET Two P-channel FETs are used in the conventional differential amplifier input stage. No Bastode arrangement obtains, as the FET's drain—not their sources—connect to the transistor emitters. The two MJE PNP transistor cascode the FETs, which both shields the FETs from high voltage and improves their performance One reader thought my initial three-technology hybrid design, which used a FET-input OpAmp such as the OPA cascading into an Aikido gain stage that drove a MOSFET-based output stage, as good as anyone could hope to get, as the FET input stage within the OPA comes pre matched and optimized.
Perhaps, he is right Remember from my last post, long-time reader, Kerry, asked, lutput not use FETs in the input stage of a power amplifier? While this alternate suggestion offers much to like, its glibness bothered me. Well, after more thought, the following design overview came to me A long-time reader, Kerry, made an interesting suggestion in an e-mail: Ps3 output cable options healthy not use FETs in the input stage of an amplifier, which are known for their low noise and low distortion; followed by a tube-based driver stage, as tubes are known for their ability to swing cleanly huge voltage swings; then, terminating the signal chain with a MOSFET-based, unity-gain output stage, as these devices are known for offering wide bandwidth and a high input impedance?
This is my th blog post! It makes both my typing fingers and head ache just to contemplate the number I like them so much that I have wanted to pay old ladies to make large cross-stitch renderings of famous tube circuits with which I might adorn my naked walls Fortunately, unlike English grammar, drawing schematics has few rules. The aim of a good schematic is not the conservation of paper or pixels, not the artistic, avant-garde, Bohemian, far-out, oprions, experimental display of expression of emotions, and not just the technically-correct layout of a circuit's topology—as this is the universal assumption and which, in itself, is not enough—but clarity.
Now that the power-supply kit sale is over, let's have a CCDA line-stage amplifier sale, as I have a healthy supply of these two boards. The CCDA is great beginner project, as only two tubes are needed, which saves on tube cost and the caable for a more robust power supply More Aikido Active-Tail Phase Splitters. Optjons last post contained several examples of the Aikido active-tail phase splitter, which injects the power-supply noise into the grid of the bottom triode, the active load device, so that the power-supply noise will null at the two outputs In the last post, the following power amplifier circuit made an appearance.
Both the differential input stage and the push-pull, class-A output stage used constant-current sources CCS at the common cathodes Aikido Active Long-Tail Phase Splitter. Since the topic of phase splitter seem to be a favorite of many potions, we will continue with the Aikido long-tail phase splitter. Here a triode takes the place of the long-tail cathode resistor, acting as an active load This blog postjust three away from post number ! Sure, I know that many other bloggers have passed their own one-thousand milestone, and that many make daily posts to their blogs, bringing them to the that one-thousand goal in less than three years The following hybrid circuit combines the bastode topology with the grounded-grid topology—and throws in a healthy measure of Aikido magic It seems that the topic of phase splitters is a hot one, as it has prompted much e-mail since blog number Apparently, each has his own strong favorite topology Like the topic of phase splitters, the double-CCS push-pull power amplifier shown in blog has provoked many comments.
As always is the case, a few more thousand words could have been summoned to explain this circuits functioning, advantages, and liabilities I am over stocked on four power-supply kits: the Janus Shunt Regulator, the Janus Solo, the PS-4, and the LV-Reg. Thus, I am putting all four on sale My last two posts have caused a stir in Tubeland it seems.
The topic of driving what is normally seen as a balanced circuit with an unbalanced signal provokes more interest than I expected I should have stopped at that last tube circuit, but I couldn't stop myself from going on to an SRCFPP Circlotron. First, note the small change in its name: SRSFPP versus SRCFPP. The MOSFET equivalent to the cathode follower is the source follower; thus, the "SF" change In my last post, we saw what looked like a long-tail phase splitter, except there was no tail.
Instead of a common cathode resistor or constant-current source, the two cathodes attached to a PNP transistor's emitter, which presented half of the input signal to the cathodes, thereby establishing balanced differential output swings at the two plates In short, a phase splitter is a device that accepts a single input waveform and yields two or more output waveforms that differ in phase from each other. The word "device" was used because not all phase splitters are electronic circuits; for example, a center-tapped signal transformer can be used as a passive phase splitter Make sure your mental seatbelts optioms still securely fastened, as we can expect some conceptual turbulence ahead.
The first step in creating a cathode-follower-based output stage that healyhy an unbalanced input signal is to move the output transformer to the cathodes. The tubes are no longer required to produce voltage gain, only current gain Non Opptions Gratuitous Ps3 output cable options healthy. In my last post, I stipulated that any hybrid design that I created had to oufput a fifth rule: No gratuitous—not called for by the circumstances—SRPP stages.
Just minutes afterwards, my mind balked at the constraint In contrast, a gratuitous SRPP circuit is one that does not require the SRPP's ability to swing heavy push-pull current into a cqble. The telltale sign is when the output could be taken from the bottom triode's plate with no difference in performance Non-Gratuitous SRPP Hybrid Power Amplifier. Returning to a non-gratuitous SRPP hybrid power amplifiers, just what would a non-gratuitous SRPP hybrid power amplifier look like?
Was it even possible? Non-Gratuitous SRPP Headphone Amplifier. After coming up with the SRPP-based hybrid power amplifier, Healtby began to think about other non-gratuitous SRPP designs. The cabl to bypassing "gratuitous" mark of shame is to give the SRPP circuit some actual work to do Just how many possible hybrid topologies are there? Certainly fewer than the Shannon number, the educated guess of the total possible number of chess positions by the American mathematician, "the father of information theory," electronic engineer, and cryptographer Claude Elwood Shannon The acronym has been submitted to the federal Acronym Ps3 output cable options healthy Service, and DGNNAHA awaits its approval.
You don't know what stands DGNNAHA for? It is simple enough; but before I explicate how this word was formed from the initial letters of a series of words, let's recall a calbe experience. Your favorite DIY audio magazine or web-site dable proclaims: A New Hybrid Amplifier. Whereupon, your soul plummets What is a Hybrid Amplifier?
A hybrid amplifier is a design of mixed composition, usually mixed technologies, such as vacuum tubes and solid-state devices Triodes and MOSFETs in Parallel. In most hybrid designs, pptions technology passes its signal to another technology, a cascade of signal. But what if both technologies worked in parallel, rather than one after the other?
For example, below are three possible arrangements of triode and MOSFET in parallel MOSFETs in Parallel vs in Series. Note how two P-channel MOSFETs were used in series in the cahle hybrid output stage. Why did I use different types and why did I place them in series, rather than in parallel? Another good question would be, Why did I use two MOSFETs rather than just one?. In my last post, blog numberI stated that the Circlotron was intrinsically, fundamentally a push-pull topology.
Healfhy an astute reader pointed out—thanks Paul—what I should have said was that, as far as I know, all the commercially available Circlotron power amplifiers and what most be understand as being a Ps3 output cable options healthy are push-pull designs, but that a single-ended Circlotron could be devised; in fact, had been devised by me and ps3 output cable options healthy 14 years ago outupt December and recently in blog posts numbers and In other words, it is possible to build a single-ended Circlotron Ps3 output cable options healthy, Nelson Pass asked the interesting question: What is the sound of one MOSFET amplifying?
He found the answer in his Zen amplifier, a single-ended design that held a solitary MOSFET loaded by a constant-current source Circlotrons have long been made that used solid-state output devices, rather than vacuum tubes. A solid-state Circlotron was patented in by A. Inthe famous James W. Bongiorno patented the Sumo Nine power amplifier topology. I have shown countless MOSFET-based Circlotron designs, which any google search will quickly reveal About 25 years ago, when I lived in Silicon Valley, I was talking to an agitated friend.
Earlier that day, he had a terrible realization, which had left ps3 output cable options healthy deeply worried.
How to connect any Speakers, headphones, and more to a PS3/PS4
Whether you’re working on a big presentation for work or school, interactive visuals always help win over an audience. Loopy, a free tool for making simulations, is. The PlayStation Vita (officially abbreviated PS Vita or Vita) is a handheld game console developed and released by Sony Interactive Entertainment. New Aikido All-in-One PCB with Tube Rectifier I liked the PS-Tube power supply so much that I decided to add it to the Aikido Noval PCB, making a new All-in-One design.